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BRIGHT LEOACY. 

DelcendanU or Ilf nry Btieht,ir., who died at Water- 
town, Mass., in 1&S6, an eotiUed to holdecholanhips in 
Harvard College, established in i38o under the will of 

JONATHAN BROWN BRIGHT 
of Wattham, Mass., with one half the income of this 
I*KacT. Such descendants (ailing, other persons are 
eligible to the scholanhips. The will requires that 



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WILLIAMSBURG, 

*Jhe Old Colonial Capital. 



LYON GARDINER TYLER, LL. D. 

Preiidgnt of Iha Catlcie o[ Witliun and Kuy, WilUamibun. Virginia, 
jr of " r^ttiri ami Timtt tftkt Tyliri," •• ParlUi am/PalroHan in ttti I, 
otti," " KnglaiidiH Amtrha," "Jamettim-n^lhe CrtulU tfl»r KifuhUc.-' i 



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copteiohtbd bt 
Lton Qabdiner Ttler. 

1907. 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 



■ Chart o( Williamsburg (about 17B0) FrontliplecB, 

WllllamsburK and Vicinity 9 

Sir William Berkeley and Autograph IS 

Queen ot Pamunkey'i Frontlet 17 

V First Survey of Williamsburg (between pages) 30 and £1 

Autograph of Francis Nicholson 2S 

Tombstone of Edward Nott 23 

Black Beard, the Pirate 27 

Some Prominent Virginians — Robert Carter, WllHam Byrd, 

Daniel Parke, Sir John Randolph 29 

CommlMBJon of James Wood as Collector for Prtderlck County,. 31 

Robert Dinwiddle, 36 

Autograph of John Blair 35 

Autograph of Francis Fauquier Z6 

Duke of Qloucester Street 39 

Page from College Faculty Book, showing Autographs of James 

Blair and other Professors, 41 

Page from College Faculty Book, showing Autographs of 

William Small and other Professors 48 

Shipping Receipt, on Account of College 47 

Norbome Berkeley, Lord Botetourt 61 

Receipt of Rev. Thomas Owatkln 63 

Gold Medal Presented to John Hobday SB 

Autograph of John Tyler, the Marshall flS 

John Murray, Earl of Dunmore <8 

Peyton Randolph 78 

Group of Revolutionary Statesmen — William Nelson, Bdmund 

Pendleton, Richard Henry Lee, George Mason, 76 

Patrick Henry 79 

Page from Faculty Book, showing Autograph of President Wil- 
liam Dawson 87 

Hand-Bin, Requiring Oath of Allegiance to Federal Government, 89 

Bruton Church, 96 

Petition of the Vestry for a New Church 97 

Bruton Parish Church Service ' 101 

The Bell of Bruton Etorlsh Church 106 

View of Churchyard, showlnR Obelisk of David Bray 109 

Original College Buildings as seen at present 113 

Rev. James Blair 116 

Hon. Robert Boyle 117 

Boundary Stone 121 

First Page of the First Faculty Book 131 

Autograph of James Blair '. 131 

College Buildings In 1732, 136 

Mrs. Sarah Blair 139 



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Illustkatioxs. 



BookDlate Of President Wir.iam Stith 

List of Students, Scholars iind Their Negro Boys, in 1754 US, 

Page from Faculty Book, ahowlng Diploma Awarded to Benja- 
min Franklin, 

Page from Faculty- Book, showing the Autograph of Rev. 
Thomas Dawson, 

County Surveyor's Bond 

Account of Thomas Jefteraon, from Bursar's Book 

Autograph ot President William Yates 

Autograph of Professor Richard Graham 

Thomas Jefferson, 

Botetouit Medal 

Autograph of President John Camm. 

Autograph of Professor Samuel Henley 

Autograph of President J. Horrocks 

Prominent Alumni — Landon Carter, Archibald Cary, John Page, 

The College Seal, 

James Monroe, 

John Marshall, 

Prominent Alumni— John J. Crittenden, Joseph C. Cabell, Wil- 
liam T. Barry 

Edmund Randolph 

A Galaxy of Judges, Alumni of the College, 

Chancellors of the College Since the American Revolution — 

Washington, Tyler and Grlgsby 

George Washington. Chancellor 

Autographs of Presidents of the College 

Portraits of Presidents—Mad I son. Smith and Emple 

Military Alumni — Taliaferro, Scott, Croghan, 

Portraits of Presidents — Dew, Saunders, Johns and Bwell 

Main College Building, erected after the fire of 185B 

Prominent Alumni — ■William W. Crump, Henry St. George 
Tucker and Nathaniel Beverley Tucker 

John Tyler, Sr 

The Capito! as It Appeared About 1830 

The Site of the Old Capitol 

Ofllces of the Governor, 

Tombstone of Matthew Whaley, 

Powder Magazine 

Advertisement in "Virginia Gazette" of the Merchant of Venice, 

Phi Beta Kappa Keys and Raleigh Tavern, 

The Apollo Boom in the Raleigh Tavern ' 

Williamsburg Jail, erected in 1744 

County and City Courthouse, erected in 1769 

Hospital for the Insane, 

Botetourt Masonic Chair and Old Masonic Lodge, 

Noted Residences — Peyton Randolph House, Peachy House, 
Bassett Hall 

Noted Residences — Tucker House, Paradise House, Blair House, 
Wythe House 

Jamestown Island, 

Old Windmill at Torktown 

Seal of Torktown 



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CONTENTS 

I. Settlement and History, 7 

1. Middle Plantation, 7 

2. Colonial Williamsburg 19 

3. Cradle of the Revolution, 38 

4. College Village, 86 

II. Bbutun Church, 93 

1. List of Ministers of Bruton Cliiircli 108 

III. The Coi.lkok, no 

1. Early History, no 

2. After the American Revolution if^rfi 

3. The College Transferred tn the State, . . . 192 

4. Presidents and Professors 194 

5. Objects of Interest at the College, 198 

6. Siminiary of Leading Pacts 200 

IV. TiiK Cai'itoi 205 

V. The (JoviikNoHS House or I'ai.ack, 213 

\'L Till-: Statk 1'hison j2i 

\'n. I'OWDKR MaCAZINK 222 

\'in. Thk Ti[e,\tkk 224 

IX. The RALEiGii Tavern 232 

X. The Printing Office, 236 

XI. The Williamsburg Jail, 23S 



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XII. James City County and Court-House, 239 

XIII. County and City Court-House, 240 

XIV. Hospital for the Insane, 241 

XV. Masonic Lodge, 245 

XVI, Noted Residences, 248 

XVII. Capitol Landing Place or Queen Mary's 

Port, 256 

XVIII. Vicinity of Willl\msbu«g, 257 

XIX. Anecdotes, 264 

Appendix, 267 

Index, 273 



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WILLIAMSBURG 

The Old Colonial Capital. 

I. 

Settlement and History. 
Middle Plantation. 

For twenty-three years after the landing at Jamestown, the 
English settlements in Virginia were confined to the valley of 
the James and to Accomac over the bay. Nevertheless, the 
need of a colony on York River, to act as a curb to the Indian 
tribes, seated on a branch of the York River, known as Pamun- 
key River, had long been recognized. As far back as l6ll. Sir 
Thomas Dale, then governor, in a letter to the Earl of Salis- 
bury, recommended the establishment of a fortified settlement 
at Chiskiack, some twenty miles from Point Comfort. But 
probably on account of the peace concluded in 1616 with the 
Indians by Dale, nothing was immediately done in furtherance 
of the suggestion, Chiskiack attracted attention again after 
the appalling massacre of 1622, when, of the settlers in Martin's 
Hundred, situated opposite on the James, seventy-three were 
slain, and the plantation there was so alarmed and weakened 
that it was temporarily abandoned. Then, in 1623, Governor 
Wyatt and his council wrote to the Eart of Southampton that 
they had under consideration a plan of "winning the forest" 
by running a pale between the James and York from Martin's 
Hundred to Chiskiack. 

In March, 1624, when the royal commissioners, sent over 
by the king to report upon the colony, enquired of the authori- 
ties in Virginia "what places in the country are best and most 
proper to be fortified or maintained," their reply was that "the 
running of a pale from Martin's Hundred to Chiskiack, which 
is not above five miles, and planting upon both rivers, would be 
the best means to protect the Colony." 

In 1626 Samuel Mathews, of Denbigh, and William Clai- 



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8 WlLLlAMBBlTKC, 

borne, of Kecoughtan, offered to build the palisades, and con- 
struct houses, at short intervals, between Martin's Hundred and 
Chiskiack. They placed the whole cost at £1,200 sterling, and 
the annual expense of maintaining the work at £100. As a 
condition of their contract, they required that a grant be made to 
them of six score yards, on both sides of the palisades.' While 
it is not believed that the offer was accepted, the general assem- 
bly, in February, 1630, upon the arrival of Sir John Harvey as 
governor, passed an act to send and maintain a company of men 
to plant corn at Chiskiack. 

At a meeting held at Jamestown, October S, 1630, Sir John 
Harvey and his Council, "for the securing and taking in a tract 
of land called the forest, bordering upon the cheife residence 
of y" Pamunkey King, the most dangerous head of y" Indyan 
enemy," did, "after much consultation thereof had, decree and 
sett down several proportions of land for such commanders, 
and fifty acres per poll for all other persons who y* first yeare, 
and five and twenty acres who the second yeare, should adven- 
ture or be adventured to seate and inhabit on the southern side 
of Pamunkey River, now called York, and formerly known by 
the Indyan name of Chiskiack, as a reward and encouragement 
for this their undertaking." 

Under this order houses were built on both sides of King's 
Creek, and extended rapidly up and down the south side of 
York River. During the very next year after Chiskiack was 
settled, William Claiborne, with one hundred men, settled Kent 
Island, 150 miles up Chesapeake Bay from Jamestown, and at 
the general assembly which met at Jamestown, February, 1632, 
Captain Nicholas Martian tcwk his seat as the representative of 
"Kiskyacke" and the Isle of Kent. By September, 1632, popu- 
lation on the south side of the York River had become consid- 
erable enough to claim two representatives in the assembly. 
The region on the York was divided into two plantations — one 
retaining the old name, Chiskiack, and the other styled "York." 
settled by Sir John Harvey at the mouth of Wormeley's creek, 
about three miles below the present Yorktown. 

' Biuce, Economic History of Virginia, I., 300. 



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Wii.LiAMHBrKu AND Vicinity. 

i^rom the Map of Vii'ginia liy Jamot Madimui, TrpMiilfiit of tlie Co11o(ib 



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10 Williamsburg, 

The plan of running a palisade across the Peninsula was 
no longer deferred, and Dr. John Pott blazed the way by ob- 
taining, June 6th, 1632, a patent for 1,200 acres at the head of 
Archer's Hope Creek, midway between Chiskiack and James 
River. September 4, 1632, the general assembly directed that 
the eni^uragement of land offered two years before to in- 
habitants at Chiskiack, should be granted to all persons set- 
tling between Queen's Creek and Archer's Hope Creek. Then 
in February, 1633, it was enacted that a fortieth part of the 
men in "the ccunpasse of the forest" east of Archer's Hope and 
Queen's Creek to Chesapeake Bay should be present "before the 
first day of March next" at Dr. John Pott's plantation, "newlie 
built," to erect houses and secure the land in that quarter. 
Under this encouragement, palisades, six miles in length, were 
run from creek to creek, and, on the ridge between, a settlement 
called Middle Plantation, (afterwards Williamsburg), was 
made. Sir John Harvey's enterprise is described " in the fol- 
lowing extract from a letter written in 1634, from Jamestown, 
by Captain Thomas Yonge, 

When the Governor came first hither, lie found James River onlj 
inhabited and one plantation on the eastern side of the B&y, but now 
be hath settled divers good plantations upon another river which lieth 
northerly from James River and hath caused a strong palisade to be 
builded upon a atreight between both rivers and caused houses to be 
built in several places upon the same, and hath placed a sufficient force 
ot men for defence of tbe same, whereby all the lower part of Virginia 
have a range for their cattle, near fortie miles in length and in most 
places twelve miles broade. The pallisadea is very neare six miles 
long, bounded in by two large Creekea. He hath an intention in this 
manner to take also in all the grounde between. those two Rivers, and 
so utterly excluded tbe Indians from thence; which work is conceived 
to be of extraordinary benefit to the country and of no extreame diffi- 
culty, in case he may be countenanced from England in his good en- 
deavours by the State of England and assisted by tbe Inhabitants heere, 
who for the present are very destitute of all manner of Arms and 
munitions for the defence of tbe country. 

Dr. John Pott, who received the first patent for land at 
'Massachusetts Hist. Society Coll., ix, (fourth series). 111, 



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Settlement and History. h 

Middle Plantation, was a skilful physician, and doubtless recog- 
nized the sanitary advantages of the country around. As the 
ridge between (he creeks was remarkably well drained, there 
were few mosquitoes and but little malaria, and the deep ravines 
penetrating from the north and south made the place of much 
strategic value. The only possible road down the Peninsula 
is over this ridge, and this road is easily defended. 

Not much is known of the early years of the settlement be- 
yond the fact that it was kept walled in with strong palisades, 
and served as a place of refuge from Indian attack, 

In 1639 Middle Plantation was commanded by Lieutenant 
Richard Popeley, who patented 1,250 acres west of the pal- 
isades. He was born in 1598 in the parish of Wooley, York- 
shire, England, and in 1620, came in the Bona Nova to Vir- 
ginia, where, in 1624, he was living at Elizabeth City. Though 
of little book education, Popeley won a high position in the 
colony by his valor and decision ; and upon the request of the 
governor the council gave him, in 1627, 1506 pounds of tobacco, 
"he being a man, that both heretofore and is still ready to do 
good service to the colony," When Claiborne made his settle- 
ment at Kent Island in 1631, Popeley, who at the time was living 
near Claiborne's house at Elizabeth City, was one of his com- 
pany of a hundred men; and a small island, now called Poplar 
Island, near Kent Island, was honored with his name.' In 
1637, he was again residing at Elizabeth City; but in 1639 he 
was captain at Middle Plantation, where he died before 1643, 
leaving a widow, but no children, to lament his loss, 

On April 27, 1644, occurred the second Indian massacre, 
and in consequence Captain Robert Higginson was directed, in 
1646, to run a new pale at the settlement, as the old was out of 
repair. In June of that year the Court of York County en- 
tered an order, referring the difference between Captain Robert 
Higginson and one John Wethersford to the next court, "in 
regard y* dangerousness of the tyme will not permitt him (i. e. 
Higginson) to leave the Charge and Care of his undertakinge 

'Maryland Archives, v. 225. 



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12 Williamsburg, 

at the Middle Plantation pale this p''sent Court." And on Oc- 
tober 26, certain persons living at the lower end of York 
Parish were ordered to pay each 35 pounds of tobacco to Cap- 
tain Higginson for "not sending up a man to the Middle Plan- 
tation for that gen'all worke in setting up a pale there accord- 
ing to former order." 

Captain Higginson was the son of Thomas Higginson, of 
London, and was a man of importance. It is recited in a grant 
for too acres at Middle Plantation, that it was allowed him "for 
some certain service by him performed to the Country Anno 
1646." It is, moreover, stated on Lucy Burwell's tombstone in 
Gloucester County, that she was the daughter of "the gallant 
Captain Robert Higginson, of the ancient family of the Hig- 
ginsons, one of the first commanders that subdued the country 
of Virginia from the power of the heathen." 

From the records in the land office in Richmond, and the 
deed and will books at Yorktown, we learn the names of some 
of the first residents of Middle Plantation, 

Among them was John Gierke, or Oark, nephew of Sir 
John Clerke, of Wrotham, in Kent County, England, of whom 
there is a long pedigree in the "Visitation of 162 1." He pur- 
chased 850 acres from Lieutenant Popeley, but died in 1646, 
without any heirs in Virginia, Two other settlers were Ed- 
ward Wyatt and his brother, George, sons of Rev. Hawte 
Wyatt, minister of Jamestown, and nephews of Sir Francis 
Wyatt, governor of Virginia in 1621-1626, and again in 1639- 
1642. Stephen Hamlin had 400 acres at the head of Queen's 
Creek adjoining the land of Lieutenant Popeley, while George 
Lake had 250 acres at the head of Archer's Hope Creek, ad- 
joining another portion of Popeley's land. 

Southwest upon George Lake, northeast upon Captain 
Popeley's land, and southeast upon the palisades, Henry Tyler, 
ancestor of President John Tyler, patented 254 acres, occupying 
the present site of the "Mattey School" of William and Mary 
College, and extending westward so as to take in the property 
called " North ington," lately owned by Judge R. L. Henley, 
now deceased. 



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SliTILICMK.Vr AND illSTuKV. 1,^ 

III if43 Richard Kciiipi', stcrt'tarj' of state, patenteil 4,3,V 
acrt's on both sides of Archer's Hope Creek, consisting of sev- 
eral former grants, viz.: 1,200 acres called "Rich Neck," form- 
erly ihc property of Georfje Menifie, Esq., sitiiatcil on the west 
side of the creek, and four tracts adjoining, of 100, 840, 2,192 
ami 600 acres respectively. The whole is described as partly on 
the cast and partly on the west of the creek, bounded "East- 
south-east upon the said creek and the palisades, north-east-by- 
east and South east-by-cast upon Cicorge Lake's Land, horth 
npon the horse path, north-west-by-north upon the branches of 
Powhatan swamp, and South upon the Secretarie's Land."* 
In the \'irginia Historical Society rooms is preserved a plat 
of this land, which shows a portion of the palisades making up 
from Archer's Hope Creek, as also the horse path along the 
ridge, where, at present, runs Duke of Gloucester Street. About 
1660, this property, which comprised the present college land, 
passed (0 Thomas Ludwell, Esq., one of Kempe's successors in 
the secretary's office. He lived at "Rich Neck," where some 
old brick and tiles mark the site of his habitation. 

In 1644 Henry Brooke, merchant of London, purchased 
from Captain Popeley 500 acres, which, in 1646, he sold to 
Nicholas Brooke, Jr., who, in 1649, conveyed the land to his 
father, Nicholas Brooke, Sr., which last, in 1652, sold 200 acres 
to Sam'l Fenn, of Martin's Hundred, describing it as beginning 
"att the creek upon the old patlasadoes, for length unto the land 
of Captain Robert Hickenson (Higginson) claimed, and for 
breadth unto the forrest." 

After the restoration of Charles II., in 1660, we find resi- 
dent at Middle Plantation such men as Peter Efford, whose 
daughter Sarah married Major Samuel Weldon; Otho Thorpe, 
who was of the same family as George Thorpe, massacred by 
the Indians in 1622; Colonel John Page, who was founder of 
the distinguished Page family of \'irginia; and James Bray, a 
prcMiiinent merchant and later member of the council. 

In Bacon's Rebellion, which happened in 1676. Middle 
Plantation figured next to Jamestown as the theatre of politics. 

' rhe " Secretaric'n Land," comprisod 600 acre* on Arclier's H'lp.) 
Ciepk, between .lopkcy'H Neck nnil Arplier'n Hope. 



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14 Williamsburg, 

Here, on August 3, at the house of Major Otho Thorpe, 
Bacon held a convention of the leading men, including four 
councillors. Under the inspiration of his presence, resolutions 
were adopted, breathing the love of liberty which characterized 
the work of the patriots in Williamsburg a hundred years later. 
The people pledged themselves to resist Sir William Berkeley 
to the utmost, and even to oppose any force sent out from 
England. "Five hundred Virginians;" said Bacon, "might beat 
two thousand Red Coats t" 

After Bacon's death and the suppression of his followers, 
Middle Plantation was the scene of the execution of William 
Drummond, whom Berkeley was inclined to believe "the orig- 
inal cause of the whole Rebellion." On January 17, 1677, 
Berkeley, after an enforced absence on the Eastern Shore of 
about four months, landed at Colonel Nathaniel Bacon's resi- 
dence at King's Creek, York River. Here he was presented 
by some of his soldiers with the distinguished prisoner, cap- 
tured not long before in the recesses of Chickahominy Swamp. 

When Drummond was brought before him, Berkeley said 
with much unction: "Mr. Drummond, I am more glad to see 
you than any man in Virginia ; you shall hang in half in hour." 
Drummond was made to walk to Middle Plantation, about eight 
miles distant, and tried before a drum-head court-martial, the 
next day, at the house of James Bray, Esq.; under circumstances 
of great brutality. He was not permitted to answer for himself ; 
his wife's ring was torn from his finger; he was stripped be- 
fore conviction, was sentenced at one o'clock and hanged at four. 
Drummond was an educated Scotchman of good family, who 
had served as a sheriff and burgess for James City County, and 
as first governor of North Carolina. He lived near Green- 
spring, and had quarreled with Berkeley over some land. In 
the beginning of the difficulties he was told that Berkeley had 
"put a brand" upon him ; and his reply'' was : "I am in over 
shoes, I will be over boots." The same day on which Drum- 
mond was executed at Middle Plantation another rebel, a 
Frenchman, called Jean Baptista, was also hanged there. Not 

' Force, Tracts, I., No. ix. 23. 



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i6 Williamsburg, 

long afterwards, tlie expected regiment from England arrived 
in the colony, but found the rebellion suppressed; and the sol- 
diers, after spending the winter among the ruined tenements at 
Jamestown, took up their quarters, in the spring, at Middle 
Plantation, They were under the command of Colonel Herbert 
Jeffryes, who held a commission to succeed Berkeley as gover- 
nor, and was joined with two other persons — Sir John Berry 
and Colonel Francis Moryson — in a commission to investigate 
the causes and his-tory of the rebellion. 

Succeeding Berkeley's departure for England, on May 5, 
1677, Governor Jeffryes invited the werowances of the neigh- 
boring Indian tribes to his camp May 29, 1677, King Charles 
II.'s birthday, to treat about a4asting peace. On this day there 
were present the queen of Pamunkey, her son. Captain John 
West,' the queen of Weyanokc, the king of the Nottoways, 
and the king of the Nansemonds. By the articles which they all 
signed, the Indian princes agreed to live in due submission to 
the English people, and, as a guarantee of good treatment, Jef- 
fryes presented to each of them a coronet or frontlet adorned 
with false jewels. One of the frontlets, presented to the queen 
of Pamunkey, is now the property of the Virginia Historical 
Society. 

The Middle Plantation must have presented a picturesque 
scene on this occasion. There were the old residents, full of 
excitement over the situation, looking with^equal curiosity upon 
the Indians and the red coats. Each werowance was attended 
by a retinue of chiefs, resplendent in beads and feathers. The 
troops, numbering in all 1,094 men, were clothed in new uni- 
forms ; and, as they paraded, each of the five companies carried 
two flags with a coat-of-arms. The flags borne by Colonel Jef- 
fryes' particular company carried "a crowned lion passant, 
upon the crown;" those of Captain John Mutlow's com- 
pany, "the ground blue, with a red cross in a white 
field;" those of Captain Edward Picks' company, "the 
royal oak crowned ;" those of Captain Charles Middfeton's com- 
pany, "white waved with lemon, equally mixed, with a red 
cross quite through, with J. D. Y. (James, Duke of York) in 

" A half-breed, the reputed son of "an English colonel." 



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Frontlet of tjib QrECN or 1'amunket, 

Now in the Virginia Hi>ftorical Sjociety. 



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l8 WlLLlAMStURG, 

cipher, in gold ;" and those of Captain William Meole's com- 
pany, "the ground green, with a red cross in a white field.'"' 

As the state house and all other buildings at Jamestown 
were destroyed by Bacon, the first general assembly summoned 
after the suppression of Bacon's Rebellion .was held, in Feb- 
ruary, 1677, at Berkeley's residence, "Greenspring," but in the 
succeeding October, the assembly met at Major Otho Thorpe's 
house in Middle Plantation. Among the laws made at the lat- 
ter session was one which may be commended to our own times. 
A fine of 400 pounds of tobacco was. imposed upon any person, 
who, by the use of such provoking terms as "traitor," "rogue," 
or "rebel," should "renew the breaches, quarrels and heart- 
burning among us," and delay the restoration of the colony to 
its "former condition of peace and love." The growing im- 
portance of Middle Plantation was shown by a petition from 
some inhabitants of York County that the place be recommended 
to the king as the seat of government. But the commissioners 
were not willing to abandon Jamestown; and, on April 25, 
the general assembly resumed its sittings at the country's an- 
cient capital, and steps were taken to rebuild the state house on 
the old walls. 

On March 6, 1679, died at Middle Plantation, Hon. Daniel 
Parke, who succeeded Thomas Ludweli as secretary of the 
colony. He was born in Esse.x County, England, and his wife 
was Rebecca, daughter of George Evelyn, of the county of 
Surry. He was ancestor of Daniel Parke Custis, first husband 
of Mrs. George Washington, and was buried in the church, on 
the walls of which was placed a beautiful tablet to his memory. 

Middle Plantation had, in 1674, been included in a parish 
called Bruton, and Rev. Rowland Jones, of Burford, in Ox- 
fordshire, was the first minister. In 1683 a handsome brick 
church, costing £800 sterling, was erected on the horse path 
"in Middle Plantation old fields," to take the place of the 
wooden churches hitherto used. Then, in 1688, the minister of 
the parish died and was interred in the church yard. As Daniel 
Parke was the ancestor of Mrs. Washington's first husband, 

'Calendar ytate Papers, Colonial (1675-11170), 1112. 



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Skttlement .vn» History. ig 

so Rev. Rowland Jones was the ancestor of Mrs. Washington 
herself. 

Some others of the old denizens of Middle Plantation died 
not long after: James Bray, of the council, in 1691 ; John Page, 
also of the council, in 1692; and Major Otho Thorpe, in 1693. 

In October of the Utter year (1693) an act of assembly des- 
ignated the Middle Plantation as the site for the proposed "free 
school and college" of William and Mary. "Townsend's land" 
on the bluff west of Yorktown had been first thought of, but 
the assembly declared Middle Plantation to be "the most con- 
venient and proper for that design," which was now ordered to 
be built "as ncare the church now standing in Middle Planta- 
tion old fields as convenience will permit." 

Colonial fS'illiaiiisburg. 
In October, 1698, tlie state house at Jamestown fell again a 
victim to flames, and (iovcrnor Francis Nicholson* carried out 
the idea formerly suggested, and made Middle Plantation 
the seat of government. The assembly approved, declaring 
that Middle Plantation "hath been found by constant experi- 
ence to be healthy and agreeable to the constitution of the in- 
habitants of this his majesty's colony and dominion having the 
natural advantages of a serene and temperate air, dry and 
champagne land, and plentifully stored with wholesome springs 
and the convenience of two navigable and pleasant creeks that 
run out of James and York Rivers necessary for supplying the 
place with provisions and other things of necessity," Rev. 
Hugh Jones states that Middle Plantation's exemption from 

'Francis Nicholaon was bom in 1000; received an ensign's commte- 
Bion in the army June 0, 1G78; made lieuH'iiant May <1, 1884; lieuten- 
ant-governor of Virginia 1000; January, 1(104, Rcivernor of Maryland; 
in 1008 returned to Virginia and remained there until ITOri; in 1713 
was made governor of Acadia, and in 1710 governor of Soutli Caro- 
lina, lie was knighted in 17'iO, returned to England in June. 17S6, and 
died In London, March r>, 1T28, By hi» will he left all hin land In New 
Kngland, Maryland and Virginia to the Society for the Propagation of 
Uie Gospel in foreign pari?, and to educate in Knglnml young New 
England miniilers, to bo sent back to their naliw country. 



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20 WiLLIAMSBUPG, 

mosquitoes, which very much troubled the dwellers at James- 
town, was another reason operating with the governor and 
assembly in favor of the removal. 

The place was now newly named Williamsburg, after the 
reigning monarch. King William, and the first survey was 
made by Theodorick Bland. Two ports, each about a mile dis- 
tant from the town, were laid out — one called Princess Anne 
Port on Archer's Hope or College Creek, about five miles from 
James River, and the other called Queen Mary's Port on 
Queen's Creek, about the same distance from York River. The 
body of the town occupied 220 acres; Princess Anne Port 33 
acres, 37^ poles, and Queen Mary's Port 14 acres, 71^ poles. 
So that the whole area of the town and ports, (including the 
two roads leading to the latter embracing 25 acres, 86f poles) 
was 283 acres, 35^ poles. The main street (called in 1705, 
Duke of Gloucester Street, in honor of Queen Anne's eldest 
son) followed partially the course of the old Middle Plantation 
horse path, and was 99 feet wide and seven-eighths of a mile 
long from the college to the east end of the town, where the 
capitol building afterwards was placed. 

Governor Nicholson at first entertained the fanciful idea 
of laying out the town in the shape of a cipher, representing 
W. & M., but he changed his view, because of its inconve- 
nience, though there is still a suggestion of these letters in the 
make-up of the eastern and western ends. Duke of Gloucester 
Street was flanked by two streets, which, taken together, made 
the founder's name, "Francis" (the street on the south,) and 
"Nicholson" (the street on the north). South of Francis Street 
was a parallel street, called Ireland Street, and north of Nichol- 
son stieet was a parellel street, called Scotland street. In center 
of the town was a market square, through which ran England 
Street, at right angles to Duke of Gloucester Street. The 
other original cross streets were Nassau, King, Palace and 
Queen Streets. Botetourt, Henry and Colonial appear to have 
been, from their names, of later origin. The directors who 
had charge of the building of the town were Governor Francis 
Nicholson, Edmund Jenings, Esq., of the council, Philip Lud- 



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Settlement and History. si 

well and Thomas Ballard, of the house of busgesses ; and Lewis 
Burwell, Philip Ludwell, Junior, John Page, Henry Tyler, 
James Whaley and Benjamin Harrison, Junior, gentlemen. 
The ground was apportioned into half-acre lots, and one of the 
conditions of purchase was that no house should be built within 
six feet of the main street. 

In a short time there arose at the Middle Plantation, under 
the fostering care of Governor Nicholson, a brick capitol (the 
first in the United States, so called), and a brick prison; and, to 
make the street (Duke of Gloucester) from the college to these 
buildings perfectly straight, it was ordered that the four old 
houses and oven of Mr, John Page (nephew of Colonel John 
Pa^e) standing in the way should be pulled down and removed. 

Nicholson did not remain in the colony long after this. He 
became infatuated with a young daughter' of Major Lewis Bur- 
well, of King's Creek, and not finding his advances encouraged, 
he conceived the wildest jealousies against Dr. Archibald Blair, 
brother of the president of the college, and other prominent 
people in the colony. He often swore that if Miss Burwell 
married any other than himself he would cut the throats of 
three persons — "the bridegroom, the minister who should per- 
form the ceremony, and the justice who should give the 
license." The majority of the council — Robert Carter, Dr. 
James Blair, John Lightfoot, Matthew Page, Benjamin Har- 
rison and Philip Ludwell — all connected with one another, 
so Nicholson charged, by blood or marriage, united in an ad- 
dress to Queen Ann, and he was recalled to England. 

And yet, despite his hot, peppery ways, Nicholson was no 
ordinary chief magistrate. While governor of Virginia, he 
did much to promote the college, gave money to a free school 
in Yorktown, and was the founder of Williamsburg; and while 
governor of Maryland, he founded, at Annapolis, King Wil- 
liam's School (now St. John's College.) 

He was succeeded as lieutenant-governor by Edward Nott, 

'Martha Burwell, who later married Colonel Henry Armistead o( 
"llosse," in Gloucester County, son of John Armisteod, of the Virginia 
Ccuncil. 



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22 Vt ILLIAMSBURG, 

who, wiser than Nicholson, took care not to offend his council, 
and was, therefore, very popular ; but he died only two years 
after his arrival. Three important events are identified with 
his administration: The burning of the college, in October, 
1705; the passage of an act, during the same month and year, 
1 for the building of a governor's house or palace; and the 
' founding, in 1706, by Mrs. Mary Whaley, of Mattey's free 
,' school, which was built on the road leading to Queen's Creek, 
not far from the bridge over the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad 
track. Upon the sudden demise of Nott, the general assembly 
erected over his remains in Bruton churchyard, a handsome 
box-shaped moimment, which is still standing. He was suc- 
ceeded at the head of the government by the president of 'the 
council, Edmund Jenings, (son of Sir Edmund Jenings, of 
Yorkshire, England), who acted as governor for four years. 
He, of course, spent most of his time in Williamsburg, but had 
his country residence at Ripon Hall, on York River. The 
attorney -general at this time was Stevens Thomson. 

In 1710 Alexander Spotswood'* arrived as lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, and, being a man of great energy, bestowed much atten- 
tion upon Williamsburg during his administration of twelve 

"Alexander Spotswood was great-grandsoii of John Spotawood, of 
Spotiswood, Scotland, who in 1G35 became archbishop of Ulaagow, and 
one of the privy council. Hia grandfather, Sir Robert Spotswood, 
president of the Court of Seseions, was a distiaguished author, and wan 
executed by parliament January 17, 1748. Hia father. Dr. Robert 
Bpotflwood, married a widow, Catherine Elliott, who had by her firat 
husband, a eon. General Elliott, whose portrait is now in the State 
Library, at Richmond, Va, Alexander Spotawood, only child of Robert 
and Catherine Spoiswood, was born in 1676 at Tangier, while his father 
waa Burgeon to the governor of the ialand. He fought under Marl- 
borough, and served as quartermaster-general with the rank of colonel. 
ile was dangerdualy wounded in the breast at the battle of Blenheim. 
He brought to Virginia a confirmation of the writ of habeas corpus; 
waa removed from the governor's office in September, 1722; retired to 
bis farm in Spotsylvania County, where he engaged in the manufacture 
of iron; in 1720 deputy postmaater-general of America; appointed 
in 1T40 major-general of an expedition against Carthagena, but died 
before the embarkation, at Annapolis, June 7, 1740, where he was prob- 
ably buried. He left descendants in Virginia. 



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AtiTiioiiAnr at Fbanoiii Kichoijiok. 



ToNDBTOHB or Edward Nott. 



D,gl,zedbyGOO<^le 



24 Williamsburg, 

years. He caused several ugly ravines that ran across the 
main street to be filled up, and thus made one level way from 
college to capitol. He assisted in rebuilding the church, and 
provided some of the brick. He built a brick magazine for the 
safe-keeping of the public ammunition, and completed the 
governor's house, which Nott had begun. Finally, he assisted 
in rebuilding the college, and was a patron of the first American 
theatre erected in Williamsburg. In addition to these build- 
ings, which were pronounced at the time, by Rev. Hugh Jones, 
as the best then in British America, there were also a few 
private houses of brick, which presented quite a handsome 
appearance, and were inhabited by some very good families, 
who nearly all had their coach, chariot, berlin, or chaise. The 
stores in town were furnished with the best provisions and 
liquors, and the ordinaries afforded good accommodations lo 
travellers and visitors. However, the generality of the private 
buildings were very ordinary structures of timber, of a story 
and a half high, painted white, and they afforded a rather 
startling contrast to the "well-dressed, compleat gentlemen and 
ladies" inhabiting them. We are told that, at the governor's 
house, on birth-nights, balls and assemblies, the scene pre- 
sented was equal to anything outside the court circles in 
England. 

The great lawyers resident in Williamsburg were the attor- 
ney-general John Clayton, William Robertson, William Hop- 
kins, John Holloway, and John Randolph, The leading phy- 
sicians were William Cocke the secretary of state, Archibald 
Blair, Lewis Contesse, John Serjanton, Robert Innis, and John 
Brown. Among the inn-keepers, the most prominent were 
Mrs. Mary Luke, widow of John Luke, formerly collector o£ 
the customs for the lower district of James River; Gabriel 
Maupin and Jean Marot — the last two being Huguenot settlers, 
who came with other Frenchmen to Virginia in 1700. Other 
residents were Colonel Nathaniel Harrison, Richard Bland, 
Francis Tyler, Dr. George Allen, John Tyler, Christopher de 
Graffenreidt, Gawin Corbin, Graves Pack, Thomas Jones, 
Francis Sharpe, Benjamin Harrison, and John James Flournoy. 



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Settlement and History, 25 

Williamsburg now began to assume an air of more than 
local importance. Ultimate American independence grew out 
of the conflict between France and England for mastery of the 
west, and Spotswood was singularly active in asserting the 
English title and in resisting the encroachment of the French 
and Indians. In 1716 he led from Williamsburg to the valley 
of the Shenandoah an expedition which blended romance with 
politics. Upon his return to Williamsburg, he presented every 
one of his company with a golden horse-shoe, bearing the in- 
scription Sic Juvai Transccndere Monies, and some of them are 
said to have been covered with valuable stones, representing 
heads of nails. 

As the college was obliged, by its charter, to pay 
two copies of Latin verses to the governor every fifth of No- 
vember, as quit rent for its lands. Rev, Arthur lilackamore. 
professor of the grammar or classical school, sang the praises 
of this " Ultramontane Kxi>edition" in classic lines, which he 
presented to the governor. 

Among other incidents connecting Spotswood's name with 
Williamsburg, was the trial in the general court, over which 
he presided, and the subsequent execution at Williamsburg, of 
some pirates, associates of the famous Black Beard, otherwise 
called Captain Teach. This ruflian, who had been a terror to 
the coasts, was surprised in I'amlico Sound, in North Carolina, 
in 1718, by some sloops sent out by Spotswood. and in a hand- 
to-hand fight, was killed by Captain Henry Maynard, who 
commanded the expedition. Such of the crew as were captured 
were taken to Williamsburg, tried, and, after conviction, were 
hanged on the road leading to Queen Mary's Port (Capitol 
landing). For this reason, this road is still sometimes, called 
"Gallows Road," though it is now more generally known as 
Lovers' Lane, because of its affording a promenade for the 
young people of Williamsburg. 

In 1720 died the secretary of state. Dr. William Cocke, 
born in Sudbury, Suffolk County, England and educated at 
Queen's College, Cambridge. His wife. Elizabeth, was the 
sister of the celebrated naturalist, Mark Catesby, whose work 



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26 Williamsburg, 

on the ornitholf^^ of America is still greatly admired. Dr. 
Cocke's tablet in Bruton Church reads as follows: 
His Hon. Friend Alex* Spot^vvood, Esqr.. th^n 
govr. 

With the principal Gentlemen of the Country 
Attended hia Funeral 
And, weeping;, saw the corps interred 
at the \\"e.*t Side of the Alter 
in this Church. 

In the last year of Spotswood's administration (1722), the 
town of Williamsburg was made, by order of the colonial coun- 
cil, "a city incorporate," and given all the rights and privileges 
usually incident to cities. By the charter, John Holloway, the 
eminent lawyer, became first mayor; John Clayton, first 
recorder ; and John Randolph, John Custis, James Bray, Archi- 
bald Blair, William Robertson, and Thomas Jones, the first 
aldermen. The mayor, recorder and aldennen were empowered 
to choose from the free inhabitants twelve persons as a common 
council, and to fill all vacancies which should occtir in their 
number ; and the mayor, recorder, aldermen and common coun- 
cil constituted the city hall, which was vested with the power 
of making city ordinances and regulations. The members of 
the two chambers were to hold office during good behavior, but 
the mayor and the recorder were elected annually by the city 
hall out of the aldermen; and vacancies among the aldermen 
were supplied by the associated bodies out of the common 
council. The charter gave the city authorities the right to hold 
markets on Wednesday and Saturday of every week, and two 
annual fairs — on the 12th of December and the 23rd day of 
April in each year. A hustings court, composed of the mayor 
and aldermen, was to be held monthly, and the city was em- 
powered to send to the house of burgesses one delegate, who, 
if a resident, was required to have a visible estate of two hun- 
dred pounds sterling, and, if not a resident, one of five hundred 
pounds sterling. It is thus seen that the government of Wil- 
liamsburg originally was not very democratic in its administra- 
tion, but it was not more aristocratic than towns in England. 

Hugh Drysdale succeeded Spotswood as governor, and, 



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Dlack Heard, -i 



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28 Williamsburg, 

after his death, in 1726, Colonel Robert Carter as president of 
the council assumed the government. After little more than a 
year. Carter,' in turn, gave way to William Gooch, Esq.," who 
had been an officer in the British army. Gooch made himself 
very popular with the Virginians ; and, outside of the ordinary 
vicissitudes, things went along very prosperously during his 
time. 

In 1734 died John Holloway, first mayor of Williamsburg, 
who, for thirty years, had practiced law with great reputation 
and success. He was for fourteen years speaker of the house 
of burgesses, and for eleven years treasurer of the colony. The 
same year his rival at the bar, William Hopkins, died in 
London. '' 

In 1228 William Parks, of Annapolis, Maryland, opened 
his printing office on Duke of Gloucester Street, and on Friday, 
August 6, 1736, he issued the first number of a weekly called 
the Virginia Cacelte. 

In March, 1737, died in Williamsburg. Hon. Sir John Ran- 
dolph, speaker of the house of burgesses, treasurer of the 
colony, and representative in the assembly for the college. His 
funeral oration, in Latin, was pronounced by Rev. William 
Dawson, a professor in the college, and he was, at his own re- 
quest, carried to his resting-place in the college chapel by six 
honest, industrious poor house-keepers of Bruton Parish, who 
had twenty pounds divided among them. Peyton Randolph, 
afterwards first president of the continental congress, and John 
Randolph, who lived to be the most distinguished lawyer in the 
colony, were his sons. Sir John Randolph was succeeded in 
the offices of treasurer and speaker by John Robinson, Jr., of 
King and Queen County. 



"William Gooeh was born at Yarmouth, England, October 21, 1681. 
He was nephew of William Gooch, whose tcrabstone is in the old church- 
yard at I'emple Farm. He served under Marlborcugh and in the Re- 
bellion of 1715. He arrived in Virginia October 13, 1727; in 1740 was 
commander of the ill-fated expedition against Carthagena; in 1746 
was made a baronet, and later a major-general; he returned to Eng- 
land in 1749, leaving John Robinson as acting governor; he died De- 
cember 17, 1751. He married Rebecca Stanton, and had an only son, 
William Qooch, who married Eleanor Bowles, but he left no issue. 



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r ViRoiMANs. 

1, Robert farter, 2. Willinm Hyrd. 3. Dnnicl Parke. 
4. Sir Joliii Kninl()l|)li, 



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30 Williamsburg, 

In November of the same year died another great lawyer, 

John Clayton, Esq., (son of Sir John Clayton, of London), 
who had been attorney-general of the colony, frequently a 
member of the house of burgesses, and judge of the admiralty 
court since 1714. His son, John Clayton, was a celebrated 
botanist, who wrote Flora Virginka, and kept a botanical gar- 
den at "Windsor," his home on the Pianketank. 

In 1740 troops for the first time were transported from 
Virginia to co-operate with the forces of tlie mother country in 
an offensive war. England fell out with Spain, and Spotswood 
was made general of an expedition against Carthagena in Cen- 
tral America. Preparatory to setting out to Annapolis, whence 
he expected to embark, he visited Williamsburg, and while 
sojourning at the Brafferton building at the college, he made 
his will, devising his books and mathematical instruments to 
the institution. He died soon after at Annapolis, and Colonel 
Gooch was appointed chief in his place, with Lawrence Wash- 
ington, half-brother of George Washington, as second in com- 
mand. The expedition proved a dismal failure, and Gooch 
returned to Williamsburg without any military glory. 

During his absence, which was from June, 1740, to July, 
1741, Dr. James Blair, president of the college, acted as chief 
executive. He died in 1743, after a ministry of fifty-eight years, 
and after having served fifty-four years as commissary to the 
Bishop of London, and fifty years as president of the college. 

The same year died Edward Barradall, an eminent lawyer, 
who succeeded Clayton both as attorney-general and as judge 
of the admiralty court. He was buried in the churchyard of 
Bruton church, under a splendid marble monument, which has 
a long Latin epitaph, celebrating his worth. He compiled the 
first reports of law causes in the general court, before which 
he practiced with much success. 

In 1744 William Parks erected a paper mill on a branch 
of Archer's Hope Creek behind the present hospital for the 
insane, and some verses were printed in the Virginia Gazette 
to celebrate the enterprise of the editor, who thus published his 
news on paper made in the colony.'^ 

" Virginia Magazine VII., 442. 



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CouiiissioN OF Jaues Wood ah Siikvrvob of FRsnEHicK County. 



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3i. Williamsburg, 

In 1746, the capitol accidentally caught fire and was burned 
down, and thereupon an effort was made to change the seat of 
government to the Pamunkey River, but it did not prove suc- 
cessful, and a law was passed in 1748, to restore the capitol on 
the same site. 

In May, 1746, the assembly appropriated four thousand 
pounds to the raising of Virginia's quota of troops for an in- 
vasion of Canada. They sailed from Hampton in June; but 
the expedition, like that against Carthagena, proved a failure. 
Governor Gooch, who was offered the command and declined, 
was made a baronet during the year, and in 1747 a major-gen- 
eral. At length, in 1749, after a long and popular administra- 
tion, he retired to England with his wife, the Lady Rebecca 
(Stanton) Gooch, where he died December 17, 1751. His 
widow, who survived him till the year 1775, left, at her decease, 
to the college a silver gilt cup and patten, which are now in the 
possession of the authorities of Bruton church, in Williamsburg. 

After his departure, there was an interval of two years, dur- 
ing which John Robinson. Thomas Lee and Lewis Burwell, as 
presidents of the council, acted as deputy-governors, and in 
this time steps were taken towards rebuilding and enlarging 
the palace. On October 15, 1751, Governor Ogle, of Mary- 
land, visited the town, and on November 20th, Robert Dinwid- 
dle'^ arrived at Yorktown with a commission as lieutenant-gov- 
ernor. He was an able man, had been collector of customs in 
Bermuda, where he exposed an enormous defalcation in the 
collections, and for this service, it is said, he was promoted, in 



"Robert Dinwiddle, the son of Robert Dinwiddie, t prominent mer- 
chant of Glasgow, and Sarah, daughter of Matt'jew Cumming, who 
was a baillie of the city in 1691 and other years, was born in 1393 at 
Germiston, his father's seat; appointed December 1, 1727 collector of 
customs in Bermuda, and by his influence in detecting a fraud in '.he 
collection of the customs in the West Indies, was appointed " surveyor- 
general of customs of the southern ports of the continent of America"; 
commissioned August 17, 1753, inspector-general; appointed July 20, 
1753, lieutenant-governor of Virginia; relieved at his own request from 
the government in January, 1758. He married Rebeoca Affleck. His 
brother, Jonn Dinwiddie, left numerous descendants in Virginia. 



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Settlement and History. 33 

1751, to the office of deputy-governor of Virginia, now the 
most populous and the most wealthy of all the Anglo-American 
colonies. 

The day after his arrival at Yorktown, November 21, 1751, 
he set out for Williamsburg, in company with his wife, Re- 
becca (nee Affleck), his two daughters, Elizabeth and Rebecca 
and his secretary, Nathaniel Walthoe, and was escorted by 
William Nelson and William Fairfax. When he arrived on the 
outskirts of the city, he was met by several other gentlemen — 
Dr. William Dawson, Colonel Philip Ludwell and John Blair, 
nephew of the late President Blair, of the college. At the 
capitol he was complimented with an address by the mayor, 
aldermen and common council, to whom he replied in a hand- 
some manner, declaring his purpose of studying the welfare of 
the country and promoting its prosperity as far as possible; 
after which he took the oath as governor, and the councillors 
took their oaths anew, and soon after they all sat down, amid 
the booming of cannon, to a grand dinner at the Raleigh 
Tavern. , 

As the palace was not ready for occupancy when Dinwiddle 
arrived, he resided during part of his term in a house on the 
Palace Green, leased from Dr. Kenneth McKenzie, and now 
known as the Saunders house. A few weeks after his arrival 
the last top brick was laid on the capitol walls, but it was not 
till 1754 that the general assembly removed from the college, 
where it was temporarily lodged, to the completed building at 
the other end of the street. There was much gaiety in Wil- 
liamsburg during Dinwiddie's time, and the plays attracted 
many people from a distance. The old play-bouse had been 
sold, in 1748, to the city as a city hall, and a new theatre was 
constructed, in 1751, at the east end, near the capitol. The city 
was the center of the business interests of the colony, and the 
merchants had a "cape company," which met twice a year for 
the regulation of exchanges and other matters of commercial 
importance, 

Dinwiddie's stay in the colony is, however, chiefly remem- 
bered for difficulties with the French, which finally broke out 



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34 Williamsburg, 

into actual hostilities. The design of the latter was to hedge in 
the English colonies by a chain of forts extending from Canada 
to Louisiana, and, in 1753. they established a fort on the Ohio 
River in the territory of Virginia. Dinwiddie resented this 
presumption, and, in 1754, sent George Washington from Wil- 
liamsburg to protest against it. The war, which soon followed, 
greatly excited the colonists, and in maintaining the English 
side Dinwiddie was tireless and indefatigable. 

The war, at first, was very disastrous to the English. Gen- 
eral Edward Braddock was sent, with a strong force of British 
regulars and colonial militia, to capture Fort Duquesne, but 
was caught in an ambush and slain with many of his men. In- 
deed, Washington and his Virginians atone saved the army 
from complete destruction. In the north the French captured 
Oswego, and the torch of their Indian allies enveloped the 
frontiers with fire. 

In his measures of administration, Dinwiddie, though pru- 
dent and wise, was not as tactful as Gooch, and consequently 
was embroiled much of the time with his council and general 
assembly, who always respected his character but often con- 
demned his conduct. 

In October, 1755, died William Stith, who had written a 
history of Virginia and was serving, at the time of his death, as 
president of the college. In June, 1756, Benjamin Franklin 
visited Williamsburg, and the college conferred upon him the 
degree of master of arts. 

In Dinwiddle's time, also, several additions were made to 
the city limits. In 1756 there was annexed a considerable 
parcel of land, belonging to Benjamin Waller, at the east end 
of the town; and, in 1758, another parcel, of seventeen acres 
and twenty-six poles, formerly belonging to Col. Philip John- 
son, adjoining the soudiern bounds, was added. In 1759, two 
other tracts were taken in — one of twelve lots belonging to 
Matthew Moody, on the west side of the road leading to the 
capitol landing, and the other a piece of land belonging to Benja- 
min Waller, on the south side of the road leading to Yorictown. 

Governor Dinwiddie was relieved from the post of governor 



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ROBEBT DlNWlDDIE, 

Governor of Virginia. 



AuTOORAPii or Jnim IIi.aih. 

AUTOGBAFII OF FRANCIH FAUQI'IKR, 

Governor of Virginia. 



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3*3 WlLLIAMSBUKC, 

of Virginia at his own request, and sailed for England in Janu- 
ary, 1758, after receiving testimonials of regard from the 
council and the municipal authorities. The library of William 
and Mary College, until its destruction by fire in 1859, pre- 
served several books presented by him, each marked with his 
hook-plate. 

After his departure, Hon. John Blair, president of the 
council, served as acting-governor for a few months, when he 
was superseded by Francis Fauquier, who arrived June 17, 
1758, from England, with a commission of lieutenant-gover- 
nor.'* In spite of his rather peppery temper, he was nearly 
everything that could be wished for in a royal governor. He 
was generous and liberal in his manners, and as a fellow of the 
Royal Society of England, he had a scholarly character and fine 
literary taste. His influence and example gave a decided 
stimulus to business, to the cultivation of literature, and to the 
spread of the arts and sciences, so that the period of his stay 
may not be inaptly termed the "golden age" of colonial Vir- 
ginia. Shortly after his coming, an expedition, under General 
Forbes, captured Fort Duquesne, and after that the war with 
France took the turn of uninterrupted English success; and 
there was, in consequence, more gaiety than ever in Williams- 
burg, at the theatre as well as in private houses, where dancing 
parties and musical entertainments were very frequent. 

■' Francis Fauquier was the cidcet sou of Dr. John Francis Fauquier 
and Elizabeth Chamberlayne, his wife. He was born in 1704, made a 
director in the South Sea Company in 1751, and a fellow of the Royal 
Society on February 15, 1753. He married Catherine, daughter of Sir 
Charles Dalton, who was buried at Totteridge in 1781. He wrote an 
essay on " The Ways and Means of Raising Money for the Support of 
the Present War Without Increasing the Public Debt" (8vo.), pub- 
lished at London in 1757. In January, 1758, he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-governor of Virginia. In 1760, Mr. Pitt wrote to Fauquier that 
when the war with the French was over. Parliament would tax the 
Colonies. Fauquier, in reply, expressed great apprehensions. Fauquier 
was still governor when the stamp act passed, and that loeasure was 
excessively distasteful to him; but Henry's resolutions went too far 
for him, and received his censure. He died in Virginia March 3, 1768. — 
William and Mary Coll. Quart., Vol. VIII., No. 3, pages 171-177. 



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Settlement and History. 37 

Washington, at the head of the Virginia troops, had greatly 
distinguished himself in the war, and upon his return to Wil- 
liamsburg, in 1758, a vote of thanks was extended to him by 
the general assembly. As soon as he took his seat in the capitol, 
the speaker, John Robinson, addressed him, in the name of the 
house of burgesses, in such glowing terms as quite over- 
whelmed him. Washington rose to express his acknowledg- 
ments, but blushed and faltered, when the speaker relieved him 
from his embarrassment by saying: "Sit down, Mr. Washing- 
ton, your modesty equals your valor, and that surpasses the 
power of any language that I possess." 

In February, 1759, a society for the promotion of manu- 
factures was formed, who were authorized by the general as- 
sembly to offer bounties for discoveries and improvements. 
As large sums were drained from the colony for foreign wines 
and silks, this body offered £500 as a premium to any person 
who should, in any twelve months within eight years, make 
the ten best hogshead of wine ; and there was a second prize of 
£100 for the second best sample. 

During the same year. Rev. Andrew Burnaby visited Wil- 
liamsburg, and he has left a record of his impressions of the 
place. The streets were not paved, and consequently, were 
very dusty; the capitol and college were "far from magnifi- 
cent ;" the governor's house was only "tolerable," though he 
admitted it to be the "best on the continent ;" and the church, 
the prison, and the other public edifices were, all of them, "ex- 
tremely indifferent." As to the houses, "they were generally 
indifferently built," and were principally of wood, covered with 
shingles. Nevertheless, taken as a whole, the town made a 
"handsome appearance," and seemed a "desirable place of 
residence." Burnaby observed that the situation of Williams- 
burg had the advantage, whidi few or no places in Eastern 
Virginia had, of being wholly free from mosquitoes. He also 
said "that, besides the merchants and tradesmen, there were 
ten or twelve gentlemen's families constantly residing in the 
place. He estimated the population at 1,000. 



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38 Williamsburg, 

Cradle of Rcfolntion. 

The year 1763 was memorable for the famous "Parson's 
Cause," which aflforded the genius of Patrick Henry its first 
opportunity for glory. In a suit brought in Hanover County 
against his vestry, by Rev. James Maury, for damages on 
account of the "Two Penny Act," Patrick Henry, as counsel 
for the defendants, denounced the king in such impassioned 
language that he was interrupted with a cry of "treason" from 
Mr, Peter Lyons, the attorney on the other side. Nevertheless, 
the jury, in less than five minutes, returned a verdict of one 
penny damages, equivalent to a dismissal of the suit. The 
speech of Henry was looked upon as asserting supreme au- 
thority in the provincial legislature, and the verdict of the 
jury paved the way to the resolutions of the legislature on the 
stamp act passed two years later. As to Governor Fauquier, 
his sympathies were against the clergy, and he gave them to 
understand that, law or no law, he was unequivocally on the 
popular side. 

Another circumstance distinguishing the year 1763 was the 
termination oi the war with the French and Indians. France 
lost all her possessions on this continent, as well as extensive 
holdings in the West Indies and Asia; but out of this triumph 
of the English were to grow domestic difficulties, which, in a 
measure, revenged France for her misfortunes. To assist in 
paying the expenses of the war, the British parliament pro- 
posed that no writing in the colonies should be held valid until 
a stamp was purchased and placed upon it. Massachusetts led 
the way in protesting against the enactment of such a law, and 
the other colonies, including Virginia, followed suit, but par- 
liament paid no attention, and passed the bill. Then it appeared 
as if no resistance would be made to the execution of the act, 
and in Massachusetts, the foremost patriot, Samuel Adams, 
did nothing more than propose a convention of the colonies 
for consultation, while James Otis, her distinguished orator, 
declared resistance "treason." It was a supreme moment, and 
Virginia sprang to the front and saved the day. On May 30, 
1765, Patrick Henry offered in the house of burgesses a series 



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Duke of Gloucestkb Street. 



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40 Williamsburg, 

of resolutions, which declared that the stamp act violated the 
principle held dear from the infancy of the colony that no 
taxes or impositions could be laid upon the inhabitants of 
Virginia, except by the general assembly. In the stormy debate 
which followed, resulting in the adoption of the resolutions, 
Mr, Henry electrified the house with a speech, which con- 
tained these inspiring words: "Tarquin and Oesar had each 
his Brutus, Charles I. his Cromwell, and Geoi^e III." — and 
here he was interrupted by the cry of "treason" — "may profit 
by their example; if this be treason, make the most of it." 
"This is the way," says Bancroft, "that the fire began ; Virginia 
rang the alarm bell for the continent." 

The action of Virginia created a tremendous sensation, and 
after this, opposition to the stamp act blazed out in all parts of 
America. When, in the last week of October, 1765, George 
Mercer, distributor of the stamps for Virginia, arrived in Wil- 
liamsburg, a crowd gathered and demanded whether or not 
he intended to enter on the duties of his office. Mercer asked 
for time, but promised to give reply at five o'clock the next 
evening. In the interim he conferred with the governor and 
the council, and at the hour appointed he met at the capitol a 
large concourse of the people, including the principal merchants 
of the colony, and agreed not to undertake the execution of the 
stamp act until he received further orders from England, nor 
then, without the consent of the general assembly of Virginia. 
He was immediately borne out of the capitol gate amid loud 
applause, and carried to the Raleigh Tavern, where he was wel- 
comed with renewed acclamation, and with the noise of drums, 
French horns, and other instruments of the kind, and given 
an elegant entertainment. At night the bells of the capitol, the 
church and the college were rung, and the city was illuminated. 

The following year (1766) there was published in Wil- 
liamsburg a remarkable pamphlet, written by Richard Bland, 
formerly a student of the college, which took the ground that 
Virginia was no part of the kingdom of England, but only 
united to it by the tie of the crown. While this was not a new 
doctrine in Virginia, the pamphlet contained the first formal 
annunciation of it on the continent. 



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A I'AOK FMiHI TITE t'OI.l.EQK t'ACULTY ItUOK, 

Showing aut()({VB|ilis of Dr. .Iiimi's Hlair and other Professors. 



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42 Williamsburg, 

During this year, also, was established in Williamsburg 
by William Rind a second Virginia Gazette, intended as an op- 
position paper, as the other. Hunter's, was deemed by some 
of the patriots as too much under government control. 

A change of government in England from the Grenville 
ministry, who originated the stamp act, to that of Lord Rock- 
ingham, a conservative, and the impossibility recognized by the 
latter of enforcing the measure, brought about its repeal by 
parliament on March 17, 1766. When the news reached Vir- 
ginia, the demonstration of joy in Williamsburg far exceeded 
that which celebrated Mercer's resignation. When the general 
assembly met in November, 1766, the question of raising a 
statue to King George III., and an obelisk to Barre, Pitt, Con- 
way, Burke and other prominent English statesmen, who had 
defended in the British parliament the rights of the American 
colonies, was discussed, but no final action was taken. 

Governor Fauquier's devotion to scientific studies inspired 
him with an aversion to dogmas of all kinds — religious or gov- 
ernmental — and he strongly disapproved the stamp act. His 
favorite companions were Dr. William Small, professor of 
natural philosophy at the college ; and George Wythe, the emi- 
nent lawyer and scientist ; and at his table the youthful Jeffer- 
son, Page, Walker, McQurg and other students of the college 
learned their lessons in the rights of man. His example in 
another respect was not so fortunate ; he was addicted to play- 
ing cards, and diffused in the colony a passion for gaming, 
which continued until sternly rebuked by the revolutionary 
spirit expressed in the orders of the county committees about 
1775- 

Though they repealed the stamp act, the British parliament, 
in 1767, under the lead of Lord Townshend, laid a duty on 
glass, painter's colors, paper and tea, to take effect in the au- 
tumn. As a consequence, fresh agitations arose. The Massa- 
chusetts assembly, ever vigilant in the cause of liberty, in Janu- 
ary, 1768, petitioned the English government against the new 
law, and addressed a circular letter to the other colonies, in- 
viting co-operation and mutual consultation. Not long after. 



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A I'AdB FHOM THE t'OLLEQB FAC-UI.TY 1(()0K, 

Showing the autographs of Willinm Small un<l otlier Professors. 



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44 Williamsburg, 

Governor Fauquier, who sympathized with the colonists, died 
in Williamsburg, March 3, 1768, in his 65th year. 

His body was interred, after an imposing funeral, in the 
north aisle of Bruton parish church; and, in the issue of the 
Gazette for March 10, 1768, an admirer of the deceased ex- 
pressed the general grief in some verses, in which the following 
lines appear: 

If ever virtue lost a friend sincere, 

If ever sorrow claimed Virginia's tear. 

If ever death a noble conquest made, 

Twas wben Fauquier the debt of nature paid. 

His death devolved the government, for the second time, 
upon John Blair, president of the council, and on March 31, 
1768, the general assembly, called by Fauquier, met in Wil- 
liamsburg, and adopted protests and memorials to the English 
government, penned in even a bolder style than those from 
Massachusetts. 

The British ministry quailed before the united opposition of 
the two most powerful American colonies, and it was resolved 
to disunite them, if possible, by over-awing Massachusetts with 
soldiers and armed ships, and placating Virginia with new 
dignities. Accordingly, two regiments were ordered from 
Halifax to Boston, and Bernard, the governor of Massachu- 
setts, in compliance with directions received from England, 
called upon the Massachusetts assembly in July, 1768, to 
rescind their circular of January preceding; but they refused 
to comply ; and a convention of delegates from the Massachu- 
setts towns in September addressed a petition to the king, the 
chief purpose of which was to defend the colony from the im- 
putation of a rebellious spirit. 

Since the days of Lord Howard, of Effingham, the chief 
executive sent from England to Virginia, had enjoyed only the 
title and pay of lieutenant-governor, while some person in Eng- 
land, who never saw Virginia, drew the full salary, and called 
himself governor. It was determined by the English ministry 
to flatter the colony by sending over, in the future, a man who 
should have both full honor and full pay. Norborne Berkeley. 



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Settlement and History, 45 

Baron cl« Botetourt," was selected, and sailed in '5 74, taking 
with him a coach of state, presented to him by the Duke of 
Cumberland, the king's uncle." On October 21, 1768, Bote- 
tourt arrived in Hampton Roads, and next morning landed at 
"Little England," on Hampton River, where he was received 
with a salute from the cannon on shore. The same day at noon, 
he set out for Williamsburg, and, as the sun went down, ar- 
rived at the city, where he was honored with the usual welcome 
ceremonies. He was met at the entrance of Williamsburg by 
the councillors and other gentlemen of distinction, who con- 
ducted him to the council chamber in the capitol, where he read 
his commission as governor, and took the oath required by law, 
after which they all repaired to the Raleigh Tavern and sat 
down to an elegant supper. That night the city was bril- 
liantly illuminated in his honor, and in the succeeding Gazette 
an ode was published, from which the following is an extract: 
Virginia, see thy Governor appears! 
The peaceful olive on hia brow he weara! 
Ijound the shrill trumpets, beat tlie rattling dnims; 
From Great Britannia's isle his Lordahjp eomes. 
Bid Echo from the waving woods ariae, 
And joyful acclamations reach the skies; 
Let thi loud organs join their tuneful roar. 
And bellowing cannons rend the pebbled shore; 
Bid smooth James ^iver catch the cheerful sound. 
And roll it to Virginia's utmost bound; 
While Rappahannock and York's gliding stream. 
Swift shall convey the sweetly pleasing theme 
To distant plains, where pond'rous mountains rise, 
Whose cloud-capp'd verges meet the bending skies. 
The Liordly prize the Atlantic waves resign. 
And now, Virginia, now the blessing's thine: 
His listening ears will to your trust attend. 
And be your ouabdian, ooveenob and fbiend. 



"Norborne Berkeley, Baron dc Botetourt, son of John Symea Berke- 
ley, wa« born in 1718; in 1701 was colonel of the North Gloucester shire 
militiaj represented the shire in Parliament; and in 1764 was raised 
to the peerage; appointed governor of Virginia in July, 1768, and died 
in that ofilce October IS, 1770. He was buried in a vault underneath 
the floor of the college chapel. 

" William and Mary Ooll. Quart., XIII., 87. 



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46 Williamsburg, 

In December, 1768, a new parliament convened in London, 
and considered all the papers relating to the colonies, and par- 
ticularly the recent proceedings in Massachusetts. The house 
of lords denounced the convention held at Boston in September, 
and petitioned the king to cause the principal actors in that 
province to be brought to England to be tried for treason. In 
Virginia, a new assembly was called by Botetourt, to meet 
May ir, 1769, and, when it convened, the insignia of royalty 
were displayed with unusual pomp. Botetourt was an amiable 
and attractive man, and soon after his arrival he made himself 
very popular by concurring with the council in refusing to issue 
writs of assistance for the enforcement of the navigation act. 
For this reason, a large crowd was present at the opening of the 
assembly, which was one of unusual interest. 

The governor, attended by a numerous retinue of guards, 
rode from the palace to the capitol in his superbly furnished 
state coach, drawn by six milk-white horses. He was dressed 
after the fashion of the day, in a very handsome, rich costume ; 
and his coat, which was of a light red color, was heavy with 
gold thread tissue. He made a rather long speech to the bur- 
gesses in the council chamber, enunciating very slowly and 
with frequent pauses; and it is said by those who had heard 
George HI. speak from the throne of England, that his lord- 
ship, on the throne of Virginia, conducted himself very much 
like the king.^' He considered it, he said, a peculiar felicity 
to announce his majesty's gracious intention "that, for the 
future, his chief governors of Virginia shall reside within their 
governments." During the ten days' sitting of the assembly, 
the time of the members was chiefly taken up in debate upon 
the important subject of colonial rights, and terminated in a 
number of spirited resolves, directed especially against the 
policy of sending Americans to England to be tried. 

The governor received a hint of what was going on, and 
sent Nathaniel Walthoe, his secretary, to find out the facts from 
the journal ; but George Wythe, the clerk, delayed him long 
enough for the house to get its resolutions in shape and pass 

" William and Mary Coll. Quart., XIII., 87. 



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S[I[1'I"INU BBCBirT 

On nceount of the College. 



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48 Williamsburg, 

them. At length, the action of the house could no longer be 
concealed, and the governor summoned the burgesses to his 
presence in the council chamber. The burgesses obeyed, and 
found his excellency awaiting them, dressed in a suit of plain 
scarlet. The speaker, Peyton Randolph, in the lead, the mem- 
bers following, advanced towards the representative of majesty, 
but stopped at the distance usual on such occasions. A solemn 
pause of a moment or two ensued, when the governor, assuming 
a stern countenance, said with considerable power of voice: 
"Gentlemen, I have heard of your resolves, and I augur ill of 
their effect. You have made it my duty to dissolve you, and 
you are dissolved accordingly." 

The effect of resolves passed by Virginia at this time was 
immense, and the press teemed with her praise. Delaware, and 
every colony south of Virginia, adopted a similar set of re- 
solves, and even Pennsylvania was aroused from her slumbers 
to express, through her merchants, her approval of what had 
been done. Thus Virginia led the way and united the colonies 
in resisting British encroachments on their rights of person, 
as she had done on their rights of properly. 
, Immediately after a dissolution of the assembly by Bote- 
tourt, the members met in the long room of the Raleigh Tavern, 
called Apollo, and signed an agreement, presented by Washing- 
ton, but drawn by George Mason, pledging themselves to en- 
courage industry, and not to import or buy any articles which 
were taxed by parliament. Some of the other colonies had 
already entered into similar agreements, and the endorsement 
of Virginia caused all the rest to join the movement. Home- 
spun clothes became fashionable, and manufactures were en- 
couraged. 

But the heart of Botetourt beat really in unison with the 
colonists, and when, not long after he received assurances from 
the Earl of Hillsbrough, the British secretary of state, that it 
was the intention of the English government not to propose any 
further taxes, but, on the contrary, to secure a repeal of the 
duties already imposed, he made haste to call a new assembly 
to meet in November, in order to inform them officially of the 
joyous news. 



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Settlement and History. 49 

In October, 1769, Rev. Dr. John Witherspoon, president of 
the newly founded college at Princeton, New Jersey, visited 
the oity in the interest of his institution. It is stated in the 
Virginia Gazette that such enthusiasm was felt by the people in 
his objects that no building in Williamsburg, not even the capi- 
tol, could hold the crowd that pressed to hear him speak. He, 
therefore, made his address in the capitol yard, and collected 
from the audience upwards of sixty-six pounds, to which the 
generous Botetourt added fifty pounds on his own account. A 
similar spirit of liberality had at other times been shown by the 
citizens of Williamsburg — in 1751, when Rev. Thomas Bacon 
came from Talbot County, Maryland, to raise funds for his 
industrial school, and, again in 1765, when Montreal was de- 
stroyed by a fire, and made an appeal for aid, 

When the general assembly convened a month after Dr. 
Witherspoon's visit, Botetourt, in conveying to them the in- 
telligence from England, added his own personal pledge that 
he would be content to be "declared infamous, If he did not, to 
the last hour of his life, at all times and in all places, and upon 
all occasions, exert every power with which he was or ever 
should be legally invested, to obtain and maintain for the con- 
tinent of America that satisfaction which he had been author- 
ized to promise that day." The burgesses received this speech 
with much applause, and began the work of the session with an 
ardor of which the code bears evidence. On December 21, 
they adjourned, and met again to conclude their work May 21, 
1770, remaining in session till June 28, 1770. 

Among their enactments there are three which challenge 
the attention. One appointed commissioners to purchase one 
hundred acres of land near Williamsburg, for a purpose similar 
to that entertained by the London Company a century and a 
half before. Then the London Company settled Anthony 
Bonell and his Frenchmen at Buckroe, in Elizabeth City Coun- 
ty, for the purpose of instructing the colonists in the art of 
raising silk worms and cultivating grapes. Now Andrew 
Esclave, a Frenchman, an expert in the wine culture, was 
granted the use of some land near Williamsburg, to establish a 



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50 Williamsburg, 

vineyard, to serve as an object lesson to the planters. This 
vineyard, as afterwards laid out, was on the road to Yorktown, 
a mile east of the town, near Fort Magruder, where occurred, 
in 1862, one of the fiercest battles of the war between the 
States of the Union. Esclave boasted in the newspapers of 
his success, but the war of the Revolution put a stop to his 
labors; and, in 1784, the land was given, by the general assem- 
bly, to the college of William and Mary. The college disposed 
of it in 1791, and the deed of the president and faculty is re- 
corded in the clerk- 's office at Yorktown, The land still goes by 
its ancient name of the Vineyard land. 

The second of the enactments provided for the establish- 
ment of a hospital for persons of disordered minds, recom- 
mended by Governor Fauquier in 1766, and the first of its 
kind established in the United States. The third measure sanc- 
tioned an agreement of the county of James City and the city 
of Williamsburg to erect, at their joint expense, a court-house 
on the market square in said city. 

The English authorities were so far from respecting the 
assurances given to Botetourt that, though they repealed the 
taxes on glass and other articles, they retained the taxes on 
tea, which was a great disappointment to the colonists. As 
we have already noticed, the merchants of Virginia, who, being 
the moneyed men of the colony, had always an importance in, 
society, had an organization, amongst themselves called the 
"cape company." At the annual meetings in Williamsburg 
usually only a few came together, but now the perverse course 
of the British ministry brought to Williamsburg, on June 22, 
1770, a large convention. They elected Andrew Sprowle, of 
Norfolk, chairman, and he and his associates joined with the 
gentlemen of the house of burgesses in an association against 
importing any manufactures from Great Britain, or any slaves 
from anywhere, and against using any tea, until the obnoxious 
laws of parliament were repealed. Nor was the action of the 
British ministry less keenly felt by Botetourt. Finding him- 
self deceived, he demanded his recall, but not long after he fell 
sick of bilious fever, which, aggravated by chagrin and dis- 
appointment, soon reached a fatal termination. 



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NORDORMO ItERKKLCr, I^HD UOTKTOUHT. 



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5* Williamsburg, 

There is a story of his last hours, which conveys a touching 
lesson. He had an intimate friend in the pure-minded and 
deeply-pious Robert Carter Nicholas, treasurer of the colony, 
who, in one of his familiar visits to the palace not long before 
his fatal sickness, had observed that "he (Botetourt) ought to 
be very unwilling to die." "Why so?" asked his lordship, 
"Because you are so social in your nature," said Nicholas, "and 
so much beloved, and you have so many good things about you 
that you must be loth to leave them." His lordship smiled, 
and made, at the time, no reply, but when taken with this last 
illness, sent a request in haste for Nicholas, who lived near the 
palace. Nicholas entered the chamber of his dying friend and 
asked his commands. "I have sent for you," said Botetourt, 
"merely to let you see that I resign those good things of which 
you formerly spoke with as much composure as I enjoyed 
them." 

His death, which took place on October 15, 1770, was deep- 
ly lamented throughout the colony. The funeral ceremonies 
were very elaborate, and the cost aggregated £700 sterling. All 
the leading men of the colony attended, and the long procession 
was headed by mourners, who carried in their hands staffs 
draped in black. His remains, encased in three coffins, one of 
them a leaden coffin, heavily ornamented with silver, were de- 
posited, according to his request, under the floor of the chapel 
of William and Mary College, and the general assembly voted 
a large sum of money to erect a marble statue to his memory. 
This statue was made in London in 1773, by Richard Hayward, 
and stood for many years in front of the old capitol building. 
When the seat of government was removed to Richmond, it 
was suffered for some years, to remain in its place, where it 
met with defacement and mutilation at the hands of the boys of 
Williamsburg, whose revolutionary spirit resented everything 
suggestive of royalty. At length, in 1797, it was removed to 
the front of the college, where it still stands in a rather shat- 
tered condition as a sort of guardian genius to the institution. 

The patron of learning, Lord Botetourt, gave to the college 
during his life-time a sum of money, the interest of which was 



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r Rev- Tiiomab Gwatkin. 



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54 Williamsburg, 

sufficient to purchase annually two gold medals, to be given — 
one to the best classical scholar, and the other to the best scholar 
in natural philosophy and mathematics. By the order of his 
nephew and executor, the Duke of Beaufort, all of his effects 
in Virginia were sold, except the state coach and the king's and 
queen's portraits, which were presented to the council of Vir- 
ginia, for the use of the succeeding governor. The death of 
Botetourt devolved the government for the third time on John 
Blair, who resigned because of his health, and thereupon Wil- 
liam Nelson, succeeding him as president of the council, was 
chief executive for nearly a year. 

On Tuesday, November 3, 1771, died Hon. John Blair, 
nephew of Dr. James Blair, and late president of the council. 
He had served twice as acting governor of Virginia, and his 
ability, vigilance and industry were signally displayed in his 
long life of 84 years. 

Not long before, some zealous churchmen in New York and 
New Jersey started an agitation for an American Episcopacy, 
and Rev. James Horrocks, the commissary in Virginia, called 
a convention of the clergy. A few ministers met at the college 
June 4, 1771, and adopted a resolution, by a small majority, to 
join in a petition to the king for the establishment. John Camm, 
professor of divinity, was the chief agitator, and he was warmly 
■ opposed by Rev. Samuel Henley and Rev. Thomas Gwatkin, 
two other professors in the college, and by two clergymen 
among the generality, Rev. Richard Hewitt and Rev. William 
Bland. 

The proposition created a great stir, not in Williamsburg 
only, whose citizens were much opposed to it, but in all other 
parts of the colony, and in the sister colonies as well. A war 
of pamphlets and newspaper articles ensued ; and, when the 
assembly met July 11, 1771, the thanks of the house of bur- 
gesses was extended to Messrs. Henley and Gwatkin, through 
Richard Henry Lee and Richard Bland, for their "wise and 
well-timed opposition." The majority of the clergy in Vir- 
ginia were opposed to the bishoprick, and nothing came out of 
the movement. 



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Settlement and History, 55 

In the fall of this year arrived in Williamsburg as govemor- 
in-chief John Murray, Earl of Dunmore," a Scotch nobleman 
and a peer of the realm. He was a contrast in every way to the 
courtly and intelligent Botetourt ; for, if we are to believe the 
reports which have come down to us, he was coarse in his 
manners and mediocre in his intellect. He was, nevertheless, 
welcomed to the city with the customary honors, and installed 
in the palace with much ceremony. Not long after his arrival, 
he called a session of the assembly for February 10, 1772, and 
one of the noteworthy acts of this session was the adoption of 
a new petition to the king to stop the slave trade, being the 
last of many appeals which they addressed to him on that sub- 
ject. In this petition they besought the king to remove all 
those restraints which inhibited the governors of the colonies 
from assenting to "such laws as might check so very pernicious 
a commerce." They spoke of the importation of slaves as a 
trade "of great inhumanity," and one calculated to endanger 
"the very existence of your majesty's American dominions." 
In addition to this, various bills for opening and extending 
internal navigation were passed, and among them was one for 
cutting a canal from Archer's Hope Creek, through or near 
the city of Williamsburg, into Queen's Creek, for boats and 
other vessels of burden. The sum of f5,ooo sterling was sub- 
scribed before the assembly adjourned, which spoke well for 
the people. No actual work was done on the canal, as the 
money was soon needed for objects of a more pressing 
character. 

May 27, 1772, died Thomas Homsby, a prominent mer- 
chant of Williamsburg, born in Lincolnshire, England; and 
November 19, 1772, died in Yorktown, Honorable William 

"John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, was born in 1732, and waa de- 
scended in the female line from the royal houae of Stuart, and eucceeded 
to the peerage in 175Q ; appointed governor of New York in January, 
1770, and of Virginia in July, 1771; he returned to England In 1776, 
and in 1780 wsb appointed governor of Bermuda. He died at Rama- 
gate, England, in May, ISOO. He was a man of culture, and had a large 
library. He has been severely abused by American writers, but his 
friends warmly attest bis kindness and generosity. 



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$6 Williamsburg, 

Nelson, father of General Thomas Nelson of the American 
Revolution, He was long a member of the council, and often 
its presiding officer. 

The horizon was again darkened by gathering clouds. A 
British armed revenue vessel having been burnt in Narragansett 
Bay, a new act of parliament punished such offenses with death, 
and required the accused to be transported to England for 
trial. There was a great deal of indignation in Virginia 
against the act, and when the assembly came together again, 
March 4, of the next year (1773), measures were promptly 
taken to bring about a more combined action on the part of the 
colonies. Dabney Carr, of Louisa, a brilliant young states- 
man, moved a series of resolutions for the appointment of a 
committee to correspond in regard to colonial affairs with simi- 
lar committees to be appointed by the other colonies. Richard 
Henry Lee was the draftsman of the resolutions, and Thomas 
Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and several other great Virginians, 
supported the measure ; and it passed unanimously, being thus 
the first step taken in America to a union of the colonies. Like 
the resolutions of 1769, they exerted an immense effect on 
political conditions. The resolves were sent to the other colo- 
nies, and, in accordance with the suggestions, a committee was 
appointed in each. 

The effect of the interdictions against British commerce was 
to promote manufactures in Virginia and encourage home pro- 
duction. In 1769 at a ball given to Lord Botetourt at the capi- 
tol, soon after his arrival, more than one hundred ladies ap- 
peared in homespun dresses. In 1770 William Nelson, presi- 
dent of the council, wrote" to Samuel Athawes, a prominent 
merchant of London, tliat he wore a good suit of clothes manu- 
factured, as well as his shirts, in Albemarle, and that his shoes, 
hose, buckles, wig and hat were made in his own country ; "and 
in these," he said, "we improve every year in quantity as well 
as in quality." Williamsburg participated in the industrial 
movement; and a joint stock company built a factory for mak- 
ing woolen and linen cloth on the north side of Queen's Creek, 

■■ William and Mary Coll. Quart., VII., 26, 



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Settlemknt and History. 57 

opposite to Queen Mary's Port; and of this company Peyton 
Randolph was president and John Crawford factory manager. 
Then, on the edge of the town, on the road going to Queen's 
Creek, was a tannery k«pt by William Pearson, the lot on which 
it stood being still known as the tan-yard lot. In the town itself 
there was a carriage factory, a factory for making wigs, and a 
snuff mill. It is believed that the paper factory erected by 
Parks in 1744 still continued on the branch of Archer's Hope 
Creek. 

The trades and professions were represented by men of 
ability and fine character. Among the store-keepers were John 
Blair, Jr., James Tarpley, Alexander Craig, William Prentis, 
Robert Nicholson and Benjamin Powell; among the jewellers 
and goldsmiths, James Geddy, Samuel Coke, James Craig and 
James Gait; among the lawyers, Benjamin Waller, Thomas 
Everard, Robert Carter Nicholas, George Wythe, John Ran- 
dolph, and John Tazewell ; and among the doctors, George Rid- 
deli, Peter Hay, John Minson Gait, John Sequeyra and Wil- 
liam Pasteur. Dr. Gait was afterwards surgeon-general of 
the United States in the war of the Revolution, and Dr. 
Sequeyra was first physician to the hospital for persons of dis- 
ordered mind. The ordinary keepers were, at this time, impor- 
tant men, and James Barret Southall had succeeded Anthony 
Hay in control of the Raleigh Tavern. Schools were numerous, , 
and the Indian school at the college, the grammar school, the 
Mattey free school adjoining the tannery of William Pearson 
on Queen Mary's road, and Curtis* free school on Queen ' 
Street, near the old James City court-house, provided elemen- 
tary education. Then, there was Miss Hallam's fashionable 
school for young ladies. There was also a school in the town, > 
which taught the free negro children to read and write. 

Increasing interest was felt in scientific studies, and there 
was organized in Williamsburg in May, 1773, "a Society for 
the Promotion of Useful Knowledge," which continued for 
quite a number of years after the Revolution. The first officers 
of this society were ; John Clayton, of "Windsor," the botanist, 
president ; John Page, of "Rosewell," vice-president ; Rev. 



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58 Williamsburg, 

Samuel Henley, professor of moral philosophy in the college, 
secretary; St. George Tucker, (son of Henry Tucker, former'y 
secretary of state of the Bermuda Islands,) assistant-secretary , 
and Davrd Jameson, of Yorktown, treasurer. John Page, Esq., 
the vice-president, calculated at his home in Gloucester County, 
an eclipse of the sun, and published his work in the newspapers, 
from which account he was named by his neighbor. Major 
John Robinson, the "John Partridge," of Virginia, after the 
noted almanac maker in England. 

Some improvement was made in the city administration, 
and, as fires were frequent, fire engines were procured, and four 
watchmen were appointed to take care of them, and to patrol 
the streets after ten o'clock and cry the hours. A race course 
adjoined the west end of the town, permitting heats of either 
two or three miles ; and races were held twice a year, and were 
commonly continued for a week at a time. The purses 
amounted to a hundred pounds each for the first day's run- 
ning, and fifty pounds each for every day thereafter. There 
were also matches and sweepstakes for very considerable sums. 
The stock of horses was derived from English and Arabian 
thoroughbreds. To these races people came in great numbers 
from remote parts of the colony. 

An English traveller, J. F. D. Smythe, describes the capitol, 
in 1773, as "an elegant building," the college as "an old monas- 
tic structure," and the governor's residence "as large, commo- 
dious, and handsome," The generality of the houses, he said, 
were of wood, painted white, every one detached from the 
other. There were no shade trees along the side-walks, and the 
streets were deep with white sand=" "wherein every step was 
almost above the shoe." He remarks upon the absence of mos- 
quitoes, and speaks of dining very agreeably at the Raleigh 
Tavern, where he drank exceeding good Madeira. The popu- 
lation of the place was estimated at about 1,800 people. 

In August, 1773, died in Williamsburg, John Tyler, who 
had long held the position of marshal of the vice admiralty 

"As tbia itinerant visited WiUiamsburg in the summer, he doubt- 
i^sfl jniatook "dust" for "sand." The soil is not sandy. 



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Settlement and History. 59 

court. He was father of John Tyler, speaker of the house of 
delegates from 1781 to 1785, and governor of Virginia from 
1808 to 181 1, and grandfather of John Tyler, president of the 
United States from 1841 to 1845. 

Meanwhile, important events had taken place in England. 
The refusal of the colonies to buy tea exported from England 
had greatly embarrassed the East India Company, and caused 
an accumulation in their ware-houses of that commodity, for 
which they had no market. On April 27, 1773, Lord North 
proposed that the company be allowed to export their tea to 
America free of all duties collectible in England, and only 
subject to the duty of three pence per pound, collectible in the 
colonies. After the proposal became a law, the East India 
Company began to ship cargoes of tea to Boston, Charleston, 
New York and Philadelphia, supposing that the Americans 
would not decline to buy the tea at the cheap rates at which it 
was sold by reason of the repeal of the English duty. The 
consignees at all four ports, except Boston, declined to receive 
the tea and resigned. At Boston alone the consignee held to hie 
commission, and thereby precipitated a crisis. On the night of 
December 16, 1773, a band of men, disguised as Indians, 
boarded the vessels, cut open the tea chests, and threw the 
entire cargo overboard. 

Upon learning of this proceeding, the English government 
was greatly enraged ; and Boston was made to suffer for the 
deed of irresponsible persons. On March 14, 1774, Lord North 
asked leave to bring in a bill to close the port of .Boston, to 
go into effect June i ; and it passed without division, although 
eloquent protests were uttered by the Earl of Chatham, Burke, 
Sawb ridge and Dow des well. 

In April, 1774, arrived in Williamsburg Lady Dvmmore 
and her children, George, Lord Fincastle, the Honorables Alex- 
ander and John Murray, and the Ladies Catherine, Augusta 
and Susan Murray, They were welcomed with an illumination 
of the city, and the three young noblemen were put to school 
at the college. The late measure of Parliament was as yet un- 
known in Virginia, and the feeling of loyalty still predominated 
with all classes. 



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6o Williamsburg, 

When the assembly met in May, 1774, Williamsburg pre- 
sented a scene of unwonted gaiety, and a court herald published 
a code of etiquette for the regulation of the society of the 
little metropolis. There were halls, dancing assemblies, theatri- 
cals, and a large concourse of people from the country. George 
Washington arrived and dined with Lord Dunmore. 

The scene, however, changed as soon as the news of the act 
of parliament with reference to the closing of the port of 
Boston reached the city. Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, 
R. H. Lee, Francis Lightfoot Lee and three or four other 
gentlemen drew up a resolution, which they persuaded Robert 
Carter Nicholas to offer, denouncing the action of the British 
government and setting apart the first day of June on which 
the port bill was to commence, for a day of fasting, humiliation 
and prayer throughout the colony. These resolves were printed 
in the Virginia Gazette of May 26, and on seeing them Lord 
Dunmore ordered the house immediately that day to come up- 
stairs to the council chamber, where he addressed them in the 
following language: "Mr, speaker and gentlemen of the house 
of burgesses, I have in my hand a paper published by order of 
your house, conceived in such terms as to reflect highly upon 
his majesty and the parliament of Great Britain, which makes 
it necessary for me to diss(Jve you, and you are dissolved 
accordingly." 

The members, thereupon, left the capitol, and next day 
(May 27) gathered together in the Apollo Hall at the Raleigh 
Tavern, where they formed an association not to purchase or 
use any kind of commodity imported by the East India Com- 
pany except saltpetre and spices; and in this agreement they 
were joined by a number of clergymen and other inhabitants of 
the colony." At the same meeting, an aflnual congress, to be 
composed of deputies from the different colonies, was recom- 
mended. By this act Virginia maintained herself at the front 
of the Revolutionary movement ; for, although, unknown to 
our patriots in Williamsburg, the suggestion of a congress was 
made in advance during the same month by the "Sons of Lib- 

" The number of assoeiators was 89. 



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Settlement and History. 6i 

erty" of New York, by a town meeting in Providence, and by 
the New York and Philadelphia committees of correspondence, 
this was the first call for a continental congress by an organ- 
ized legislative body presided over by a speaker, and assuming 
to speak officially for a whole colony. It was the glory of 
Virginia that her burgesses took the lead in calling not only a 
congress, but "an annual congress" of the colonies, involving 
a permanent union. The action was decisive, and the assembly 
of Rhode Island followed her example June 15, and that of 
Massachusetts June 17. But Virginia went a step further, 
when, on May 29, the Philadiclphia letter containing the sug- 
gestion for a general congress reached Williamsburg. The 
speaker called all the legislators that remained in the city, some 
twenty-five in number, and they adopted a resolve, summoning 
the first Virgima Convention, which met in Williamsburg on 
August I, 1774. 

June 15, 1774, the "Society for the Advancement of Useful 
Knowledge" held its second session in Williamsburg. As John 
Clayton had died in the interval, his place as president was 
filled by John Page, of "Rosewell." George Wythe was made 
vice-president: James Madison, (professor of natural philoso- 
phy and mathematics in the college), and Rev, Robert An- 
drews, of Yorktown, secretaries; David Jameson, treasurer; 
and James Madison, curator. They held their meetings in the 
capitol, and several valuable philosophical papers were read. 
John Hobday, of Gloucester County, was voted a pecuniary 
reward and medal for his model of a very ingenious and useful 
machine for threshing wheat. Dr. Franklin, Dr. Lettsom, of 
London, Rev. Thomas Baldwin, John Baldwin, Esq., of Ches- 
ter, England, Dr. Smith, provost of the College of Philadelphia, 
Dr. Morgan, Dr. Rush and Mr. Rittenhouse, of the same city, 
Edward Foy, the governor's secretary, Dr. Steward, of Blad- 
ensburg, Maryland, and Dr. Smibert, of Boston, were chosen 
corresponding members." 

"After this time there Eire but few notices of this eocietj', though it 
appeared to have kept up an organization of some sort for many years. 
Among the letters of Jefferson ia one in 1T87 in answer to John Page, 



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62 Williamsburg, 

The convention of delegates from the colony at large met, 
according to appointment, on August i, in the city of Williams- 
burg, and appointed deputies, with Peyton Randolph, of Wil- 
liamsbtirg, at their head, to attend the general congress at 
Philadelphia in September. Tne members of this convention 
agreed, in behalf of the colony, to purchase nothing, except 
medicine, imported from Great Britain-, after November i ; to 
buy no slaves imported from any place whatever, and to use no 
more tea. It was further agreed that, unless American griev- 
ances were redressed before August lo, 1775, they would ex- 
port no more tobacco or any other article whatever to Great 
Britain. 

September 14, 1774, the first general congress met in Phila- 
delphia; Peyton Randolph, of Williamsburg, was elected presi- 
dent, and Patrick Henry opened the proceedings with a speech. 
A petition to the king was adopted, a new association against 
imports recommended, and the different colonies were advised 
to appoint committees in every town and county to see that its 
provisions were carried out. 

Meanwhile, an Indian war had broken out on the frontiers, 
and in September, 1775, Lord Dunmore left Williamsburg for 
the scene of action. On October 10, the Virginians, under the 
command of Genera! Andrew Lewis, met the Shawnees and 
their confederates at Point Pleasant, on the Ohio River, and, 
after an obstinate battle, defeated them. Soon after Lord 
Dunmore made peace with the Indians, and returned to Wil- 
liamsburg. 

In November, Hanover County, under the lead of Patrick 
Henry, appointed its county committee as advised by congress, 
and the example was soon followed. Williamsburg elected 
the following gentlemen, in December, 1774, members of the 
city committee: Hon. Peyton Randolph, Esq., Benjamin 
Waller, James Cocke, James Southall, James Hubard, Thomas 
Everard, Robert Nicholson, John Minson Gait, Robert Carter 

who urged him to accept the presidency. He wrote that " he should feel 
himself out of his true place to stand before MeClurg." Dr. Jomea 
MeOlurg was probably president at the time. 



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Mnrslml of the Vice Ailmirally ( 



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64 Williamsburg, 

Nicholas John Dixon, Benjamin Powell, George Wythe, John 
Tazewell and John Carter. 

In the beginning of 1775 the people of Williamsburg were 
in anxious suspense, expecting an outbreak of civil war. They 
raised a large supply of provisions and clothes, and shipped it 
to the people of Boston, suffering for the necessities of life 
under the operation of the port bill. On February 7, 1775, the 
first number of a third GaDette was published by Alexander 
Purdie, at Williamsburg. Dunmore was regarded with sus- 
picion, and remained in gloomy solitude in his palace, tenacious 
of authority, but fearful of resisting the popular will. His 
true course was to adopt a "do nothing" policy, but this he had 
not the firmness or inclination to do. February 20, parliament 
adopted a resolution called Lord North's "Olive Branch," 
pledging itself in very vague and uncertain language not to 
tax any colony which should raise its quota of the common 
expense. 

March 20, 1775, the second Virginia convention assembled 
at Richmond, and on the 23rd, Patrick Henry introduced his 
famous bill for organizing the militia. In its support, he used 
those words which will ring through ages to come: "Is life so 
dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains 
and slavery i" Forbid it, Almighty God. I know not what 
course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give 
me death." 

March 28, 1775, Danmore issued a proclamation requiring 
all civil officers to do their utmost to prevent the appointment 
of deputies from Virginia to the continental congress, which 
was to assemble at Philadelphia on May 10. This proclamation, 
however, had no other effect than to irritate the colonists and 
weaken the influence of the government. But it was not long 
before Dunmore resorted to a procedure far more stupid and 
exciting. 

The magazine in Williamsburg contained twenty barrels 
of powder and a considerable number of guns, and Lord Dun- 
more became apprehensive that its contents would be seized to 
arm the militia. The people of the town and the city volunteers 



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Settlement and History. 65 

under Captain James Innis," usher of the grammar school at 
the college, patrolled the streets, and kept a pretty strong guard; 
But at length, doubting the truth of the report, they grew a 
little negligent; and before daybreak, on Thursday, April 20, 
Captain Henry Collins, with the assistance of some marines 
and sailors, who had been concealed at the palace, secretly car- 
ried off, in his lordship's little wagon, all the powder it would 
conveniently carry — about sixteen and a half barrels — to the 
Magdalene armed schooner, stationed under his command at 
Burweil's Ferry on James River, about six miles from Wil- 
liamsburg. It was carried down to the Fowey man-of-war 
(commanded by Captain Montague), who received it and 
sailed with it around to Yorktown. 

When intelligence of this event was noised in Williamsburg, 
there was great excitement, and the militia rushed to arms and 
could, with difficulty, be restrained by Peyton Randolph, 
the speaker, and Robert Carter Nicholas, the treasurer, frwn 
rushing to the palace, and seizing the person of the governor. 
The common hall assembled, drew up an address, and waited 
upon the governor in a body. Their address was presented to 
him by Peyton Randolph, the recorder of the city, and con- 
tained a hot remonstrance against his ill-advised action. To 
this Dunmore returned a verbal answer, excusing his conduct 
by a reported insurrection of slaves in Surry County, and 
pledging his honor that, whenever the powder was needed, it 
should be forthcoming. This reply, though not satisfactory, 
quieted the citizens, and was regarded as a promise to return 
the powder shortly. 

The news of the removal of the powder spread in a very 
short time throughout the colony, and soon more than six hun- 
dred cavalry assembled at Fredericksburg, but, before march- 
ing to Williamsburg, they sent thither Mann Page, Jr., Esq., 
to enquire whether the gunpowder had been replaced in the 
magazine. He arrived in Williamsburg on the morning of 
April 27, after a ride of twenty-four hours, and left in the 
evening with a letter from Peyton Randolph, in behalf of the 

"Afterwards Attorney -General of Kentucky. 



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66 Williamsburg, 

corporation, advising against any violent proceedings. Next 
day Mr. Randolph set out for the congress, and reached the 
house of Edmund Pendleton in Caroline County, from which, 
on Saturday, the 29th, he joined with his host in sending a 
second letter of similar import to Fredericksburg. The same 
advice was given by Washington in a letter to James Mercer, 
with the result that, after a long and animated discussion, the 
committee of 102 deputies, appointed by the troops, consented, 
by a majority of one only, not to go to Williamsburg. When 
Dunmore heard of this assembling of troops, he grew very 
wrathy and sent word to the mayor of Williamsburg, Dr. Wil- 
liam Pasteur,"' "that, if any injury was offered to himself or 
the officers who acted under his directions, he would proclaim 
liberty to the slaves and reduce Williamsburg to ashes." 

The excitement was much increased by the news which 
arrived from Boston of the battle of Lexington, fought on April 
19, the day before the removal of the powder. The messen- 
ger reached Williamsburg on the night of Friday, April 28, 
and on the next day after, Alexander Purdie published an extra 
of his Gazette, which was excitedly read on the streets. Its 
closing words were: "The sword is now drawn, and God 
knows when it will be sheathed." 

On May 2 the council met at the palace, and discussed the 
situation. John Page, the youngest member, boldly advised the 
governor to give up the powder and arms, as necessary to re- 
store the public tranquillity. Dunmore, enraged, struck the 
table with his fist, exclaiming: "Mr. Page, 1 am astonished at 
you." The other councillors. President William Nelson, John 
Camm {president of the college), Ralph Wormeley, Richard 
Corbin, Gawin Corbin and William Byrd remained silent. The 

" Dr. William Pasteur was the son of a surgeon, Dr. Jean Pasteur, 
who, in 1700, came to Virginia from England in the Huguenot colony 
of that year. Dr. William Pasteur married Elizabeth Stith, daughter 
of William Stith, president of the college. He died in 1795, leaving hia 
estate to his sister, Anne Craig, wife of Thomas Craig, and to hia nieee, 
Anne Smith, wife of Granville Smith. At thia time Dr. Paateur was 
partner with Dr. John Minson Gait in the practice ot medicine and 
surgery. , 



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Settlement and History. 67 

result of the meeting was the issuance of a proclamation by the 
governor, assuring the public that he meant no harm and 
promising to return the powder "as soon as the present ferment 
ihould subside." The same day the committee of Hanover 
County met at New Castle, and, urged by Patrick Henry, au- 
thorized him to proceed to Williamsburg with a company of 
troops and demand the return of the powder. Captain Henry 
set out at once, and was re-inforced on the way by com- 
panies from Charles City," New Kent and King William, En- 
sign Parke Goodail, wilh sixteen men, was detached to "Lane- 
ville," on the Mattapony, the seat of Richard Corbin, the king's 
deputy- receiver-general, to demand the estimated value of the 
, powder ; but the king's money was kept then in Williamsburg, 
and it was learned that Colonel Corbin was in that place. Cap- 
tain Henry, in the meantime, with the main body, continued 
his march to Williamsburg, and the news of his approach 
caused great excitement. Lady Dunmore and her children 
precipitately fled to the protection of the Fozvey man-of-war 
at Yorktown, while Lord Dunmore planted cannon at the 
palace, armed his negro servants, and ordered up a detachment 
of marines from the ships. Henry, with 150 men, reached 
Doncastle's ordinary in New Kent, sixteen miles from Wil- 
liamsburg, on the evening of May 3, and late that night, Colo- 
nel Carter liraxton, who lived at "Elsing Green," on the Pa- 
munkey, arrived in town from Henry's camp. The alternatives 
presented by him were the restoration of the gun-powder or 
its value paid down; and, the latter being acceded to by Dun- 
more, Colonel Braxton returned with a bill of exchange for 
£320 from Richard Corbin, the receiver-general, and delivered 
it to Henry in his camp at sunrise of May 4. At ten o'clock 
of the same day, a detachment of forty sailors and marines 
from the Fowey, under Captain Stretch, arrived at the palace 
by way of the governor's park. 

The affair of the powder being settled, Captain Henry 

"According to & MS. letter of PreBident John Tyler to the New Eng- 
land Historical and Genealo(;ical Society, the Charles City oompany was 
commanded by his father, John Tyler, Sr. 



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68 Williamsburg. 

wrote a letter lo the treasurer, Robert Carter Nicholas, offerings 
to remove the treasury of the colony to a safer place or to send 
a guard for its protection. But Nicholas returned the answer 
that "the minds of the people of Williamsburg were perfectly 
quiet, and that there was now no necessity for the proposed 
guard." Indeed, more than one hundred of the citizens of Wil- 
liamsburg patrolled the streets and guarded the treasury in 
the night. Upon this. Captain Henry and his men broke up 
camp and returned to their respective homes. 

Two days later, May 6, the governor, relieved of appre- 
hensions, issued a proclamation denouncing the outrages 
of "a certain Patrick Henry, of Hanover County, and a num- 
ber of his deluded followers," and calling upon the people to 
"vindicate the constitutional authority of the government." The 
reply was not long in forthcoming; for addresses and resolu- 
tions approving his conduct poured in upon Mr. Henry from all 
parts of the colony ; and when, on May 1 1 , he set out to attend 
the general congress, he was honored with an escort to the 
Potomac River composed of young gentlemen from Hanover, 
King William and Caroline counties, and had to repeatedly 
stop on the way to receive addresses of thanks and applause. 

About this time Dunmore received orders from Lord North 
and Lord Dartmouth, at the head of the British government, 
to submit the propositions called "The Olive Branch," and he 
issued, on May 12, a summons for a meeting of the assembly. 
The troops from the Fowey, called by the people of Williams- 
burg, in derision, "Montague's boiled crabs," were sent back to 
the river. Lady Dunmore and her children returned to the 
palace, and the council published an address, in which they ex- 
pressed "their detestation and abhorrence of the licentious and 
ungovernable spirit that had gone forth and misled the once 
happy people of this country." The council now shared the 
public odium with Dunmore, and were severely criticized in the 
newspapers. 

In contrast with the unpopularity of Dunmore were the 
honors extended to Peyton Randolph. After his return to 
Philadelphia he was again elected president by the continental 



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70 Williamsburg, 

congress, but when, soon after, the news arrived that the house 
of burgesses was to meet, he resigned and set out for Virginia. 
At Ruffin's Ferry, on the Pamunkey, he was met by a detach- 
ment of cavalry from Williamsburg, all in uniform, who formed 
an escort. Two miles from Williamsburg they were joined by 
a company of infantry, and at Williamsburg itself, where they 
arrived at sunset, they were welcomed with cheers and the 
ringing of bells, "There were illuminations in the evening, 
and the volunteers, with many other respectable gentlemen, 
assembled at the Raleigh, spent an hour or two in harmony and 
cheerfulness, and drank several patriotic toasts." 

The house of burgesses organized on June i, by the re- 
election of Randolph as speaker, but hardly had they addressed 
themselves to the business of the session, before an incident 
occurred, which had no small effect in increasing the public 
irritation. On Saturday night, the third of June, a few over- 
zealous young men broke into the magazine for the purpose of 
getting arms. A cord, communicating with two spring guns. 
had been so placed that the arms could not be approached 
without touching it. One of the guns went off and wounded 
three of the intruders— one of them, a popular young man, 
named Beverley Dickson, quite seriously. While the conduct 
of the young men was not openly approved by the people of 
Williamsburg, the contrivance resorted to for the protection 
of the arms was deemed wicked and malicious. Dunmore's un- 
popularity was increased by the publication at this time of his 
letter to Lord Dartmouth, representing the condition of the 
colony as one of open rebellion — a statement perfectly true, but 
one which the colonists were not yet prepared to admit." 

Before proceeding to consider Lord North's proposals, the 
house appointed a committee to inspect the magazine and en- 
quire into the stores belonging there ; and James Innis, captain 
of the Williamsburg volunteers, was required to place and 
maintain a guard for its defence. Dunmore thought it best to 

■■ For two years the operationB ot the royal government were bus- 
pended in nearly all the colonies, and yet they professed to be loyaJ to 
King George. 



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Settlement and History. 71 



repeat his reasons in a message to the house for removing the 
powder, and promised that "as soon as he saw things in a state 
of security, he would certainly replace it." But difficulties 
thickened. Rumors spreading that the mariners and soldiers 
belonging to the British ship Fowey were to be again intro- 
duced into the town, the people assembled in the streets with 
arras in their hands, and were with difficulty convinced that 
the report had no foundation. In this situation of affairs some 
news that now arrived from the north proved too much for 
Dunmore's nerves. An express from General Gage, at Boston, 
acquainted him of his intention to publish a proclamation pro- 
scribing Samuel Adams and John Hancock; and, fearing that 
he might be seized and detained as a hostage, Dunmore sud- 
denly, about two o'clock in the morning of June 8, withdrew 
from the palace with his family, his secretary, Captain Edward 
Foy, and some of his domestics; and went on board of the 
Fowey man-of-war. 

The people of Williamsburg were very much surprised at 
this denouement, and the council and house of burgesses tried 
to induce Dunmore to return, but in vain. They, nevertheless, 
continued their work on the bills of the session, and June 12 
Thomas Jefferson, as chairman of a committee, made a masterly 
report to the house in answer to Lord North's so-called "Olive 
Branch," The burgesses approved the conduct of the late war 
with the Indians, and provided the means of defraying the 
cost; but the governor would not pass the bill, because it 
imposed a specific duty of five pounds on the head, about ten 
per cent, on the value, of every slave imported from the West 
Indies. The last exercise of the veto power by the king's 
representative in Virginia was for the protection of the slave 
trade. At length, having finished their legislation, they en- 
treated him to meet them at the capitol for the purpose of 
giving his formal consent, as was usual, to the bills and re- 
solves passed by the assembly. He replied that he could not 
go to the capitol, but would be glad to see them on board his 
majesty's ship in York River, 

The burgesses voted this message "a high breach of the 



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72 WiLUAUSBURG, 

rights and privileges of this house," and on Saturday, June 
24, adjourned to meet October 12. On that day, 37 members 
only appearing, which was not a sufficient number to proceed 
to business, they adjourned to the 7th of the succeeding March, 
1776. On March 7 only 32 members appeared, who adjourned 
to the first Monday in May. On Monday, May 6, several 
members met, but did "neither proceed to business nor adjourn, 
as a house of burgesses." And thus passed away the last 
vestige of royal government in Virginia, 

Six days previous to the adjournment of the assembly in 
June, 1775, George Washington had been elected by congress 
commander-in-chief of the armies of the United Colonies, and 
after this lime the clash of arms took the place of tumults and 
bickerings. Dunmore proclaimed freedom to the negroes, and 
instituted a predatory maritime warfare, but after suffering 
various reverses at Great Bridge, Hampton and Gwynn's 
Island, he dismissed his ships, joined the British naval force 
ii' New York, and, towards the end of the year 1776 sail to 
England. 

July 17, 1775, the third Revolutionary convention of Vir- 
ginia met at Richmond. Peyton Randolph, representing Wil- 
liamsburg, was elected president, and, as there was then no ex- 
ecutive head, an ordinance was passed, creating "a general 
committee of safety," to be composed of Edmund Pendleton, of 
Caroline, George Mason, of Fairfax, John Page, of Gloucester, 
Richard Bland, of Prince George, Thomas Ludwell Lee, of 
Stafford, Paul Carrington, of Charlotte, Dudley Digges, of 
Williamsburg, William Cabell, of Amherst, Carter Braxton, 
of King William, James Mercer, of Hampshire, and John Tabb, 
of Amelia. Peyton Randolph was again elected to head the 
delegation to Congress, and several important ordinances were 
passed for paying the expenses of the late war with the Indians 
(£150,000), and for duly protecting the colony. 

September 11, 1775, gentlemen representing Williamsburg 
and the counties of Elizabeth City, York, Warwick, James City, 
Charles City and New Kent, met in the city, and after electing 
Robert Carter Nicholas chairman of the meeting, organized a 



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Peyton Kandolpii. 
FirBt President of the Continental Congre 



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74 WlLLIAMSBl'RG, 

battalion of the companies with the following officers : Cham- 
pion Travis, of Jamestown, colonel ; Hugh Nelson, of York- 
town, lieutenant-colonel ; Samuel Harwood, of Charles City 
County, major ; and as captains, Robert Anderson, of Williams- 
burg; John Cary. of Elizabeth City; Richard Cary, of War- 
wick; William Sheldon Sclater and William Goosley, of York; 
John Walker, of James City ; Furnea Southall and John Tyler, 
of Charles Clly; and Thomas Massie and Andrew Anderson, 
of New Kent. James Bray Johnson was appointed "commis- 
sary of musters." Williamsburg was made, by the committee 
of safety, the rendezvous for the troops of the colony, and 
Patrick Henry, the commander-in-chief, who arrived Septem- 
ber 20, selected the field back of the college as the camping- 
ground.-' 

On October 22, 1775, died in Philadelphia, in the fifty- 
fourth year of his age, the Honorable Peyton Randolph, who, 
during his life-time was considered the foremost citizen in 
Virginia. Son of Sir John Randolph, he was educated at his 
father's alma mater, William and Mary College, and studied 
law at the Inner Temple in London, In 1748 he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of the colony and served till 1766, 
when he became speaker of the house of burgesses, continuing 
to preside over that body until it expired. He stood at the 
head of the Virginia delegation to congress, and was the first 
president of that body. He was also president of the different 
Virginia conventions till his death, provincial grand-master of 
Masons in Virginia, and president of the Williamsburg fac- 
tory. His remains were brought from Philadelphia to Wil- 
liamsburg by his nephew, Edmund Randolph, and, November 
21, were deposited in the family vault in the college chapel in 
the presence of "the brotherhood of free Masons, both houses 
of the assembly, a number of gentlemen, and the inhabitants of 
the city." 

The numerous notices in the paper of persons intending to 
leave the colony show that the crisis had at last arrived. Many 
in the colony, while opposed to the course of the British gov- 

"Henry, Patrick Henry, I., 320. 



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A Uboup or Kb VOLUTION ABE Statbsubn. 

1. William Nelaon. 2. Edmund Pendlelon. 3. George Mason. 

4. Bichard Ilenr^ Lee. 



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76 WiLLIAMSBURCj 

eminent, were not disposed to favor independence and re 
sistance. Among these was the brother of Peyton Randolph, 
John Randolph, "his majesty's" attorney-general, who deemed 
it dishonorable to take up arms against a government under 
which he held office. He left the colony and died in England, 
in 1784 but his body was carried back to his native State and 
buried by the side of his brother, Peyton, in the college chapel. 
He was the last of the colonial attorney-generals, and his son, 
Edmund, a warm advocate of the American cause, was first 
atom ey-gen era 1 of the new commonwealth of Virginia, Be- 
sides John Randolph, two of the professors at the college left the 
colony about this time, Rev. Thomas Gwatkin, who was chap- 
Iain to Lady Dunmore, and Rev. Samuel Henley, celebrated 
afterwards in England as the translator of Vatheck. 

The fourth Virginia convention met in Richmond, Decem- 
ber I, 1775. and organized by electing Edmund Pendleton as 
president. The representative from Williamsburg was Joseph 
Prentis, in the place of George Wythe, who was absent as a 
delegate to the general congress. After one day, the conven- 
tion adjourned to Williamsburg, where it assembled December 
4, and remained in session till January 20, 1776. It issued a 
declaration, replying to the manifestoes of Lord Dunmore, 
and defending the Colony — an able paper, which was reported 
by the treasurer, Robert Carter Nicholas, and is believed to 
have been prepared by him. 

May 6, 1776, convened at the capitol in Williamsburg the 
fifth and most important of all the revolutionary conventions 
of Virginia. Williamsburg was represented by Edmund 
Randolph. Congress had pursued the policy of waging a 
defensive war against Great Britain, and Wythe said in Octo- 
ber, 1775, that "it was from a reverence for this congress that 
the convention of Virginia neglected to arrest Lord Dunmore." 
Nor was it till December, 1775, that congress gave its sanction 
to waging an offensive war upon him. Even after that time, 
they attempted to keep open the door of reconciliation; and 
the measures adopted by congress and the other colonies up to 
the meeting of the Virginia convention were limited to the 
continuance of the "present disputes." 



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Settlement and History, tj 

In no other colony was a finer spirit displayed than in Vir- 
ginia, In the different counties the candidates for the conven- 
tion were required to pledge themselves for independence. The 
earliest county probably to act was Citniberland, whose com- 
mittee, on April 22, in resolutions drafted by Carter Henry 
Harrison, used the following language :" "We, therefore, your 
constituents, instruct you to declare for an independency; that 
you solemnly abjure any allegiance to his Hrittannick majesty 
and bid him good night forever, that you promote in our con- 
vention an instruction to our delegates now sitting in conti- 
nental congress to do the same." 

Accordingly, the convention, on May 15, adopted resolu- 
tions drawn by the chairman, Edmund Pendleton, offered by 
Thomas Nelson, and advocated by Patrick Henry, instructing 
the Virginia delegates in congress to proi>ose to that "respect- 
able body" to declare the United Colonies "free and independent 
States, absolved from all allegiance to or dependence upon the 
crown or parliament of Great Britain." A second resolution 
provided for a committee to prepare a declaration of rights 
and a plan of government for the colony, and by this resolution 
Virginia was proclaimed independent long before congress 
acted. In consequence, the greatest joy prevailed in Williams- 
burg. The troops were drawn out atrd paraded before 
Brigadier- General Andrew Lewis in Waller's grove, at the 
east end of the town, near the theatre. Toasts were drunk, and 
each of them was accompanied by a discharge of artillery. The 
bells were rung, and "the liritish flag was immediately struck 
on the capitol and a continental hoisted in its room,"" 

On June 12, the convention adopted a declaration of rights, 
and on June 29, a State constitution, by which it was declared 
that "the government of this country, as formerly exercised 
under the crown of Great Britain, is totally dissolved." The 
declaration of rights was the work of George Mason, and 
the body of the Virginia constitution was substantially his, 

"IViHiam and Mary Coll. Quart., U. 2G3. 

"Henry, Life of Palrick Henry, I., 309; Lm, Lee of Virginia, 170; 
Virginia Oatette, of May 17. 



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78 WiLLIAMSBURC. 

though the beautiful preamble proceeded from the pen of 
Thomas Jefferson. Immediately after the adoption of the plan 
of government, the convention elected Patrick Henry first gov- 
ernor of the commonwealth. The last act of the convention, on 
July 5, when it adjourned, was tp adopt a State seal, and the 
inscription, devised by George Wythe, has often been admired 
for its appropriateness and classic beauty. 

On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee moved in congress, 
in obedience to the instructions of Virginia, the resolutions 
for independence, but it appearing in the course of the debates 
that the colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, Maryland and South Carolina were not yet ready 
for them, it was thought prudent to wait awhile and to postpone 
the final decision to July 1 ; but that this might occasion as 
little delay as possible, a committee, with Thomas Jefferson at 
the head, was appointed, Jupe 11, to prepare a Declaration of 
Independence. The adoption of these great measures, on July 
J, and July 4, respectively, consummated the work which Vir- 
ginia had begun. Her fearlessness was hailed with joy by the 
people throughout America, and glowing tributes to the pa- 
triotism of the Old Dominion were paid in the private cor- 
respondence and the public journals of the day. She was the 
recognized leader in this, the last, as she had been in the first 
act of the Revolution ; and thus is vindicated for Williamsburg, 
as the scene in which these important proceedings were nursed 
into maturity, the title of "The Cradle of the Revolution." , j 

The estate of Lord Dunmore, called "Porto Bello," and his 
library and effects at the palace were seized by the Virginia 
authorities and exposed to public auction. A younger daughter 
of Dunmore, named Virginia, born during her father's resi- 
dence in the colony, had been formally adopted by the general 
assembly with provision for her life support. After the Revo- 
lution she reminded the State assembly of its spontaneously 
assumed obligations, and later in life, in the eighteenth century,. 
she petitioned the United States congress, by mediation, or by 
its own act, to secure her some provision, being infirm and in- 
indigent circumstances; but her prayers were unheeded. 



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8o WlLLIAMSBlRG, 

Patrick Henry, the first governor of the commonwealth, 
resided in the palace, and spent the whole of his term of three 
years in Williamsburg. The convention fixed his salary at one 
thousand pounds per annum, and ordered that a thousand 
pounds besides be expended in furnishing his residence. Some 
of the "big wigs" of former times at first regarded' him as 
rather plain for the office, and made fun of his address and 
country manners. But Patrick, as chief magistrate, showed 
them that he could rise to any occasion, and he assumed a dig- 
nity of manner and attire that quite astonished everybody. He 
dressed in a suit of fine black clothes, and a cloak of scarlet 
adorned his shoulders, while his wig was as big and as fine 
as any worn upon the streets of Williamsburg. 

Virginia maintained her leadership throughout the war. 
Her arms were employed in so many directions at once that 
she furnished her full quota, and more than her quota, of troops 
to the continental cause. The other Southern States were 
allowed to recruit their regiments on her soil, and the militia 
in each county, though uncounted as troops, was kept in ser- 
vice throughout the war. She had the Indians on the border 
to fight, and she was the only one of the States that kept up a 
public navy. The service of her public ships was of much im- 
portance, as tliey not only effectually prevented the incursions 
of bands of plundering Tories on the bay, but were useful in 
making prizes of British merchantmen and in exporting tobacco 
and other produce, and exchanging their cargoes in the West 
Indies for arms and military stores. Smollett, in his continua- 
tion of Hume's History of England, says that "by the export 
of tobacco from the Chesapeake the credit of the colonies was 
chiefly, if not wholly, supported," and "by the inland naviga- 
tion of that bay, large quantities of provisions were conveyed 
to the middle colonies for the subsistence of the American 
armies." 

During the time Williamsburg continued to be the capital, 
which was until 1780, the place was the resort of persons of 
great distinction. August 2, 1777, "Lady Washington, the 
amiable consort of his excellency, General Washington," came 



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Settlement and History. 8i 

to town from "Eltham," the seat of William Bassett, Esq., in 
New Kent, and "upon her arrival she was saluted with the 
firing of cannon and small arms, and was safely conducted to 
Mrs. Dawson's in the city." The city was in another stir, when 
the news of the surrender of Burgoyne, at Saratoga, arrived. 
Patrick Henry issued from the council chamber, on October 31, 
1777, a ringing proclamation, appointing the thirteenth day of 
the next month as a day of thanksgiving. February 22, 1779, 
"a very elegant entertainment was given at the Raleigh Tavern 
by the inhabitants of Williamsburg, to celebrate the anniversary 
of the birth of Genera! George Washington, commander-in- 
chief of the army of the United States, the saviour of his coun- 
try, and the brave assister of the rights and liberties of man- 
kind." Not long after, there arrived as prisoner in Williams- 
burg Henry Hamilton, known as "the scalp taker," late gov- 
ernor-general of Canada, captured by George Rogers Clark at 
Vincennes in the Northwest Territory. The people were much 
incensed against him on account of his dealings with the 
savages, and he was put in irons and kept in jail for some time. 
Thomas Jefferson succeeded Henry as governor June I, 

1779, and remained in Williamsburg till the last day of April, 

1780, when he went to Richmond, which had been selected as 
the seat of the new government, and to which all the records 
and papers were now removed. One of Jefferson's last acts 
in Williamsburg was to issue a proclamation, naming December 
9, 1779, as a day of public and solemn thanksgiving. The last 
issue of the Virginia Gazette published in Williamsburg by 
Dixon and Hunter, was dated April 8, 1780, and the first issue 
in Richmond May 9, 1780. 

During the remainder of the war the territory of Virginia 
was scarcely ever free from an invading force, and Williams- 
burg was kept in constant alarm. 

In September, 1780, General Leslie landed in Virginia with 
3,000 men, intending to co-operate with Lord Cornwallis in 
the South, but not receiving news from him, he embarked his 
forces for Charleston, South Carolina. The last of December 
Benedict Arnold arrived with another British force and sailed 



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82 Williamsburg, 

up James River, capturing W'eslover and Richmond. In March, 
1781, Arnold was joined by 2,000 additional troops under Gen- 
eral Phillips, who took command of the British forces at Ports- 
mouth. Phillips moved up the river, and one detachment 
landing at Eurweli's Ferry, marched to Williamsburg and en- 
camped there two days (April 20-23, 1781). Williamsburg 
contained no public supplies, but the Stale had a ship-yard on 
the Chickahominy, and a squad of the enemy burnt at that 
place an unfinished ship of 200 tons. 

As the authorities had sent nearly all the guns out of the 
State to the aid of the Northern and Southern armies, there 
were no means on hand of arming any great number of the 
militia, and Phillips and Arnold had an easy campaign. The 
gallant little navy of Virginia was destroyed, and the prospect 
was gloomier still when Cornwallis, about May 20. 1781, ef- 
fected a junction with Phillips' troops at Petersburg. He 
harried and devastated the country about Richmond, and then 
marched down to Williamsburg, which he reached June 25. 
During the ten days of his slay he did not improve in his con- 
duct, if we may believe St. George Tucker, a colonel in the 
Virginia militia, and a resident of the city: "Pestilence and 
famine took root, and poverty brought up the rear," The 
British plundered the houses and scattered the small- 
pox wherever they went. Lord Cornwallis turned Presi- 
dent Madison and his family out of his house at the college, 
and forbade them to get water from their own well, but happily 
the college building afforded them an asylum until his lord- 
ship's departure. 

Many of the inhabitants incurred great losses from the 
British, especially in the matter of their slaves. Thus Dr. 
James McClurg, professor of medicine in the college, lost "all 
his small servants but two girls." "Poor Mr. Cocke was de- 
serted by his favorite man Clem; and Mrs. Cocke by the loss 
of her cook, and is obliged to have recourse to her neighbors 
to dress her dinner for her. They have but one little boy — 
who is smaller than Tom — left to wait on them within doors." 
To add to the catalogue of monification, the British constrained 



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SETTLEK.ENT AND HISTORY. 83 

all the inhabitants of the town to take paroles, and left behind 
them swarms of flies, that for a long time made life almost 
"intolerable" by their stings. 

July 4, 1781, Cornwallis left Williamsburg and proceeded 
to Portsmouth by way of Jamestown. On the way to the latter 
place he was attacked by the Americans under Lafayette at the 
church on the Main, but the assailants were driven back with 
considerable loss. Afterwards, CornwalHs, under orders from 
Sir Henry Clinton at New York, transported his troops from 
Portsmouth by water to Yorktown and threw up intrench- 
mcnts. Here he fell a victim to the strategy of General Wash- 
ington and the combined power of America and France. 
Lafayette, who commanded the American troops in Virginia, 
watched him at a safe distance, and on Septeml)er 6. his army, 
reinforced by 3,000 men, under General St. Simon from the 
French fleet under Count de Grasse, lay in small detachments 
encamped on the road from Greenspring to the "half-way 
house," six miles from Yorktown. General Washington's army 
was at the head of Chesapeake Bay, preparing to move by 
water, and the commander-in-chief and General Rochambeau 
were on the way by land, in advance of their troops, 

September 15, Colonel St. George Tucker wrote as follows: 
I wrote you yeaterday that Oeneml Waaliington had not yet 
arrived. About four o'clock in the afternoon hU approach was an- 
nounced. He had passed our eamp, which in now in the rear of the 
whole army, ijefore we had time to parade the militia. The French line 
had jUHt time to form. The Continentals had more leisure. He ap- 
proached without any pomp or parade, attended only by a few horee- 
men and his own servants. The Count de Rochambeau and General 
Hand, with one or two more olRcers were with him. I met him as I was 
endeavoring to Ret to camp from town, in order to parade the brinndej 
but he had already passed it. To my great surprise he recognized my 
teaturea and spoke to me immediately by name. General Nelaon, the 
Marquis, etc., rode up immediately after. Never was more joy painted 
in any countenance than theirs. The Marquis rode up with precipita- 
tion, clasped 'he General in his arms, and embraced him with an ardor 
not easily described. The whole army and all the town were presently 
in motion. The General, at the request of the Marquis de St. Simon, 
rode through the French lines. The troops were paraded for the pur- 
pose, and cut a most splendid figure. He then visited the Continental 
line. As he entered the camp the cftnnon from the Park of Artillery 



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84 Williamsburg, 

and from eveiy brigade annouDced the happy event. Hii train by Uiia 
time was much increased; and men, women and children seemed to vie 
with each other in demoDstrations of joj and eagerness to see their 
beloved countrTinan. His quarters are at Mr, Wythe's (George 
Wythe's) house. Aunt Betty bag the honor of tbe Count de Rochuu- 
beau to lodge at ber house. We are all alive and so sanguine in our 
hopes that nothing can i>e conceived more different tlian the counte- 
nances of the uuue men at this time and on the first of June. The 
troops which were to att«ud the General are comin? down the bay — 
a part, if not all, being already embarked at the Head of Elk. Cornwal- 
lis may now tremble for bis fat«, for nothing but some extraordinary 
interposition of bis guardian angels Beems capable of saving him and 
tbe whole army from captivity. 

September 22, the army of General Washington arrived at 
Jamestown and camped on the banks of the river. September 27 
they marched through the city of Williamsburg, and Dr. James 
Thacher, a surgeon, gave this account of his impressions of the 
place : 

This is (Was) tbe capital of Virginia, but in other respects is of 
little importance. It is situated on a level piece of land, at an equal 
distance between two small rivers, one of which falls into York, the 
other into James River. The city is one mite and a quarter in length, 
and contains about two hundred and flfty houses. The main street ie 
more than one hundred feet in width, and exactly one mile'° in length, 
at one of the extremities, and fronting the street, is tbe Uapitol, or 
tjtate House, a bandsome edifice, and at the other end is the college, 
capable of accommodating three hundred students, but the tumult of 
war has broken up the institution. The college is about one hundred 
and thirty feet in length And forty in breadth, with two handsome 
wings fifty byi thirty." Their library is said to consist of about three 
thousand volumes. Near the centre of the city is a large church, and 
not far from it the palace, the usual residence of the Governor, which 
is a splendid building. The water in this vicinity is extremely brackish 
ftnd disagreeable. This part of the State of Virginia Is celebrated for 
the excellent tobacco which it produces," and this is their principal 
staple commodity, though the culture of cotton receives some attention. 

"The real length of the main street was seven-eighths of a mile. 

"The front of the collie was 136 feet by 40 feet, and the wings 
(chapel and hall) were 60 by 25 feet, outside measuronent. 

" After the Uevolution, the culture of wheat wa;s substituted for 
that of tobacco in the neighborhood of Williamsburg. 



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Settlement and History. 85 

After camping for the night three-quarters of a mile 
east of Williamsburg (near Fort Magruder), the com- 
bined armies took up the march, September 28, to 
Yorktown, and, on October 19, occurred the surrender of the 
British army, the effect of which was to secure American in- 
dependence. Succeeding this, part of the American troops 
were sent to reinforce General Greene in the south, and an- 
other and larger part were returtied to New York; but the 
French remained near Williamsburg till the next summer, the 
headquarters of the Count de Rochambeau being in the city. , 
probably at the house known as the Peachy house, then the' 
property of Mrs. Elizabeth Bland Beverley, Colonel St. George 
Tucker's wife's aunt. 

On March 2, 1782, the degree of doctor of civil law was 
conferred by the college on the French general. Count de 
Chastellux, who etijoyed the honor of being one of the forty 
members of the French academy. 

The provisional articles of a treaty of peace were signed at 
Paris, November 30, 1782, and in pursuance of a declaration of 
the continental congress, April ir, 1783, Governor Benjamin 
Harrison issued his proclamation for the cessation of hostilities 
within the State. He communicated his proclamation to the 
mayor of Williamsburg, and on May i, 1783, American inde- 
pendence was duly celebrated in the city. 
Governor Benjamin Harbison kJ the Mayor of Willi Auemmo. 
RiODUOND, April 23<i, 1733. 

SiB — It gives me pleaaure to have it in my power to congratulate 
fou on the important event of a general peace and American independ- 
ence as announced in the inclosed proclamation ot Congress, & I have 
to request that you will cause the said proclamation, together with ttie 
one Issued by me for the strict observance of it, publicly read in your 
city. I am, sir, Vour obedi Hble Serv', 

Ben J. Harrison. 

(On the inside of this letter is written in another hand the " Order 
of the Procession on the Grwit Bay," as below.) 
Ordbb of the Pbooebsion on the Obgat Day, Tiiubbdat, May lax. 

]•' Two attendants, in front, supporting two Btaffs, decorated with 
Ribbons, &c,, &c. 

2' The Herald mounted on a Oelding neatly Caparisoned. 

31 Two Attendants, aa at flrst. 



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86 Williamsburg, 

Ao> Sei^eant bearing the mace. 

51b Maj'or, Kecorder, with Charter. 

Qtti Clerk, Behind, carrying the Plan of ttie Citf. 

t'b Aldermen, two and two. 

8tii Common Council, in the samtf order. 

fltii The Citizens ia the same order. 

The Citizens to be convened on Thursday at 1 o'clock at the Court- 
Uouse by a, Bell man. 

After the convention of the citizens the;' are to make proclamation 
at the C; House, after which the Bells at the Church, College & Capitol 
are to ring in peal. 

From the C' House the Citizens are to proceed to the College, and 
make proclamation at that place, from whence they are t« proceed to 
the Capitol and make proclamation there; and from thence Proceed to 
the Raleigh A pass the rest of the Day. 

College Village. 
Ia 1779 the population of Williamsburg was about 2,000, 
but the removal of the capital to Richmond was very detri- 
mental, and the population dwindled about one-third 
in sixteen years, Mr. Weld, in his Travels, says that 
"the town (1795) contained about 1^00 people, and the society 
in it is thought to be more attractive and more genteel at the 
same time than any place of its size in America." The city 
about that time was the residence of Rev. James Madison, 
president of the college, the first to teach political economy at 
any American college ; of Dr. John Minson Gait, surgeon-gen- 
eral of the United States ; of Charles Bellini, the first American 
professor of modern languages; of John Blair, associate judge 
of the Supreme Court of the United States; of St. George 
Tucker, author of the first American text- book on the law; 
of Dr. James McClurg, professor of medicine in the college, 
trained in the best universities of Europe ; of Robert Andrews, 
professor of mathematics, who, with President Madison, laid 
out the boundary line between Virginia and Pennsylvania; of 
Dr. Wilham Carter, a learned physician ; of Robert Saunders, 
a distinguished lawyer ; of Simeon Deane, who brought to 
America from Paris, in 1778, a copy of the treaty of alliance 
between France and the United States; and of some others of 
cultivation and refinement, They lived comfortably and well. 



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A I'AdB t-miM THE Facvity Hook, 
Showing aiitotfiftph of I'lesident VVilliani l)nwnon. 



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88 Williamsburg, 

but without any great elegance or luxury. They had neat gar- 
dens and a good market, which furnished excellent meats and 
poultry, fish, crabs, oysters, wild fowl, butter and vegetables. 

In 1804 William Taylor Barry, afterwards postmaster- 
general, was a student at the college and wrote an account of 
Williamsburg. He spoke of the place as greatly decayed, and 
of the houses as of very indifferent architecture. He brightened 
up, however, when he referred to the site of the town and the 
main street, which were as "handsome" and "elegant" as they 
well could be. The ladies, while "not overburdened with learn- 
ing, were gay, entertaining and extremely hospitable," 

In 1824 the town was visited by the Marquis de Lafayette, 
who was received with respect and enthusiasm. He laiided at 
Yorktown, and the statement is made that the outpouring of the 
country was so great that the last carriage left Yorktown as the 
first entered Williamsburg, twelve miles distant. He was en- 
tertained at the house of Dr. Peachy, and at the college received 
from the faculty the degree of doctor of laws. 

In 1841 the town was the residence of a president of the 
United States, John Tyler, who lived at Bassett Hall, For 
sixty years after the Revolution the country about Williams- 
burg went backward, and there was much emigration south- 
ward and westward; but, during the twenty years immediately 
preceding the war between the States, the vicinity, in common 
with all Tidewater Virginia, immensely improved, under the 
new system of farming, introduced by the noted agriculturist, 
Edmund Rutfin, a graduate of William and Mary College. 

In 1859 a great calamity befell Williamsburg in the acci- 
dental burning of the main college building, but the friends of 
the college came to the rescue and soon restored it. Just at this 
time, Williamsburg received a visit from William B. Rogers, 
the famous scientist and formerly a professor in the college, 
who wrote as follows : 

Boston, April 4, 1859. 

Now, let me tell you something of my visit to Virginia, .... 

I went down the rirer on Saturday in a little steamer plying between 

Riclimond and the Chickahominy, whicli, as you know, approaches 

within fourteen miles of Williamsburg, separating James City aiid New 



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{Found at the College.) 



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90 WiLLIAMSBUKG, 

Kent counties. A Tiolent stcnn of wind prevented my Undiog at the 
mouth of the river, and X was taken up some miles to a point not far 
from the residence of our old ftieiid, Littleton Waller. At hia pleasant 
home I arrived a little before sundown, was welcomed with both hands 
extended, bj his wife, not previously known to me, and conducted up- 
stairs, where I found Littleton basking in the warmth of a ta x uri ons 
wood fire, the very picture of philosophic and benevolent cheerfulness. 
After visiting all quarters of the globe and sharing in the dangers of 
the Mexican War, as a: purser in the navy, be some years ago retired 
from active life to his present country home, where he has made himself 
the model farmer of the neighborhood, and spends his time in doing 
good to his neighbours. You can hardly imagine his happy surprise at 
seeing me, and the afTectionate inquiry be made about you and Eobert 
With him and his lady friends I made a good collection at bis fine marl 
bank the next (Sunday) morning, and after dinner was driven in a 
buggy to dear old Williamsburg. To my great delight I found all along 
the road proofs of prosperous and improved agriculture. The old 
" Bunt-ornery," as the negroes used to call the ruinous, charred inn, is 
now replaced by a hamlet of neat white houses, and on all sides I saw 
evidences of neatness and thrift. But sad was the sight when about 
sundown 1 came in view of the college, as I approached by the road 
leading past the president's house. Many of the old trees on the road- 
side greeted me as familiar (rends, but I missed the sharp, many win- 
dowed roof of the college, and found, as I drew near, that although the 
solid walls had tor the mos.t part, defied the assault of the fire, the 
whole interior of the wings, as well as main structure, had been turned 
to ashes. 

I drove past, with a tearful eye, noting that the mossy coat of old 
Botetourt was unscathed, that the dial kept its place, that the presi' 
dent's house and our home, the BralTerton, had not been injured, and 
that one of those noble live-oaks at the gate was dead. I drove slowly 
down the quiet level street, at almost every step recognizing familiar 
objects, and dwelling in dreamy sweet sadness on the past. As I drove 
by the old church, whose steeple has never yet been painted, the organ 
was sounding the closing services, and soon after, I reached Mrs. Vest's, 
at the lower extremity of the street on the right hand. She and her 
husband came to bid me the warmest and kindest of Virginian welcomes. 

The Visitors, including John Tyler, Governor Wise, William Harri- 
son of Brandon, 'layloe of Rappahonnock, Tazewell Taylor, etc., asked 
me to confer with them in regard to rebuilding the college. This has 
been definitely resolved on, and will be commenced on forthwith. The 
old foundations and the front wall will be retained, but, of course, a 
more convenient interior has been planned. The insurance money, with 
what has been and will be collected from friends, will, I believe, put 



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Settlement and History, 91 

the college In a better condition th»n before. I obtained in WilliMni- 
burg acme lithograph vie we ot the college »nd lur rounding! taken hj 
Miilingtoti'B son goine years ago, one of wiiich I reserve for you. Though 
a poor Bpecimen of art, <t will be precious as reminding us of the home 
of our dear father, and tt>e spot where we flrst caught the Inspiration 
of science. 

In 1861 the old capital was excited by the breaking out of 
war between the States of the American Union. If the patriot- 
ism of the State was great in the war of the Revolution, it 
was far exceeded in the effort to drive back the army of in- 
vasion from the North. The people of Virginia were not dis- 
posed tamely to surrender to any power that "freedom, inde- 
pendence and sovereignty," which they had so often solemnly 
claimed and asserted for the commonwealth. The number of 
troops contributed by the State to the war exceeded 180,000 
men," which was almost one-fifth of the entire white popula- 
tion, and far greater than the proportion furnished by any other 
State, North or South. 

During the war the city contributed to the army all its 
boys over fifteen and men un<k'ii sixty, and the college, nearly 
all its students and professors, includmg President 13r. 
Benjamin S. Ewell, who was a colonel of infantry and later 
chief of General Joseph E. Johnston's military staff. On the 
outskirts of the town was fought the bloody battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, and through its streets passed the mighty armies of 
Generals Johnston and George B. McCleilan. The city was 
alternately in the hands of the Confederates and Federals, and 
new experiences taught the people that pillaging, burning and 
other excesses were not an accomplishment solely of British 
troops. The main college building and several fine old houses 
in Williamsburg and in the vicinity thereof, were destroyed by 
Federal soldiers, and Cornwallis' policy of taking paroles of the 
inhabitants was not so harsh as the policy of the Federal officers 
in imposing an oath of allegiance upon all persons of either 
sex over sixteen years of age, under penalty of being put 
outside of the lines — into the woods it might be. Probably the 

-William and Mary Coll. Quart., Xlll., 141. 



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92 Williamsburg, 

most irreparable loss sustained was the destruction of the 
James City County record books, which were sent to Richmond, 
at the beginning of the war, for safekeeping, and perished in 
the fire which destroyed that city in 1865. 

Peace came at last, and Williamsburg, shattered by poverty 
and war, took up again the burden of its destiny. But the 
Virginian, true to his English descent, never yields to despair; 
and, after the old Confederate soldiers returned, the houses of 
the town were repaired and the main college building rebuilt 
on the old walls of 1694. In 1881 the centennial of the sur- 
render of Lord Cornwattis at Yorktown awakened new life, 
and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad ran its cars through 
Williamsburg not long after. In 1888 the college, which had 
been closed for seven years, was revived under the patronage 
of the State legislature. Then, in 1893 the bi-centennial year of 
the college charter, congress, by an appropriation of money, 
made amends to a considerable extent for the injuries inflicted 
by war, and since that time Williamsburg has greatly improved. 
The "Ancient Capital" has its face toward the future, while 
proudly conscious of the past. It is often visited by travellers 
from Europe, and from the North, who never fail to take away 
with them kird impressions of the neighborhood, and love to 
repeat in letters to newspapers and other periodicals the in- 
teresting stories of its ancient glory. The present population is 
about 2,500." 

** Until the prescDt century, when Williamsburg was put hj the 
Legislature wholly in Jamca City County, it lay partly in York County 
and partly in Jamea City County, Duk« of Gloucester Street being, (or 
the most, the dividing line. Consequent'y, the county records at York- 
town {the early records of James City County being lost), afford much 
information regarding the early life of the city. 



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Bruton Church. 

When, in 1632, Middle Plantation was laid out and paled 
in, a parish of the same name was created, but as no vestry 
book is preserved, nothing is known of its ministers or officers. 
In 1644 a parish called Harop in James City County, between 
Archer's Hope and Martin's Hundred, was established, and in 
1658, this parish was united with Middle Plantation to form 
a new parish called Middlctown parish,^ 

By 1654 the "forest" to the northwest had received so many 
immigrants, that at the session of the legislature that year "the 
upper part of York County, from the West side of Skimeno 
Creek to the heads of Pamunkcy and Malttaixmy rivers, and 
down to the head of the West side of Poropotanke," was 
created into a separate county, called New Kent; and, at the 
same session, that part of York County on the river, which lay 
adjoining, "from the head of the north side of Queen's Creek 
as high as the head of Skimeno Creek," was made into a dis- 
tinct parish, and was called Marston. In the same year (1658) 
Major Joseph Croshaw, whose daughter Unity married Colonel 
John West, Lord Delaware's nephew, gave to the parish of 
Marston one acre of his plantation called "Poplar Neck," near 
the "Indian Fields," for a church-yard, on which land the deed 
states there was already a church. 

In 1660 Rev. Edward FoHott was the minister of Marston 
parish, and Joseph Croshaw and Robert Cobbs were two of the 
vestry. 

There is a deed, dated March 5, 1659, from Ralph Simkins 
and Susannah, his wife, to Samuel Fenn, (whose daughter, 
Sarah, married Thomas Claiborne, a son of the renowned Wil- 
liam Claiborne), conveying 37 acres of woodland, "except two 
acres, part thereof, given formerly by the said Simkins to the 
use of the parishioners of Middletown parish, and on which 

> WilHam >.nd Mary Coll. Quart., III., 169. 



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9^ WnXIAMSUiBt^ 

a. church is now building." In 1674 the parish of Marston was 
joined to that of Middletown, and the united parishes became 
known as "Bruton Parish" — 3 name ever since retained, and 
derived from the Ludwell family, or from Sir William Berkeley, 
the governor, wlio were from Bruton, County Somerset, in 
England. 

No vestry book of Marston parish has been preserved, but 
its register, beginning in 1660, was continued as the register 
of Bruton parish, and it has come down to us in a mutilated 
condition. The new parish opened a vestrj- book of its own, 
and the first entry bore date "April ye i8th, 1674." This book, 
after having been preserved until the late war between the 
States, disappeared, and has never since been found. For- 
tunately, Rev. J. C. McCabe had the use of it in 1856, and he 
published many extracts in The Church Review and Ecclesiasti- 
cal Register, (Vol. III., i855-'56). 

Of Bruton parish, Rev. Rowland Jones (1640-1688), son of 
Rev. Rowland Jones, of Oxfordshire, and a graduate of Oxford 
University, was the first minister. The two churchwardens in 
1674 were Captain Philip Chesley and Mr. William Aylett, 
both of York County ; and the Hon. Daniel Parke, Mr. James 
Besouth, Mr. Robert Cobbs, and Mr. James Bray, were mem- 
bers of the first vestry. .■\Iexander Bonnyman was first clerk. 

In N'ovember, 1677, the vestry determined "not to repair 
the upper or the lower churches in the parish," but "to build a 
new church with brick at the Middle Plantation." There were, 
therefore, in Bruton parish, in 1677, probably three wooden 
structures for worship coresponding to the old parishes of 
Marston, Middle Plantation and Harop; for Bruton, which now 
embraced the three, stretched in an irregular manner from York 
River to James River, and was about ten miles square. The 
exact location of these wooden churches becomes a matter of 
interest. Marston Church stood near Magruder village, about 
five mites from Williamsburg, at the head of Queen's Creek,'' 
and Middletown Church was probably near the present brick 



'At the edge of a wood north of Magruder are tombstones and some 
scattered glazed brLck indicaling a graveyard and the probable site of a 



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96 Williamsburg, 

church in Williamsburg. In 1674 Thomas Qaiborne and 
Sarah, his wife, made a deed to convey the wife's inheritance 
in the old plantation of Ralph Simpkins at Middle Plantation 
except "the two acres on w""" the Parish Church of Bruton now 
standeth, formerly given by Ralph Simpkins unto the parish- 
ioners of Bruton." There is absolutely no suggestion preserved 
as to the location of Harop Church. 

To the proposed brick building at Middle Plantation liberal 
contributions were made by Rev. Rowland Jones, John Page, 
Gideon Macon, Martin Gardiner, Thomas Ludwell, Esq., and 
others. On January 23, 1681, an agreement was signed by 
Captain Francis Page to erect the structure for "£150, and sixty 
pounds of good, sound, merchantable, sweet-scented tobacco, 
to be leveyed of each tytheable in the parish for three years 
together." The land on which the church was built, together 
with sixty feet of the same every way for a church yard, was "a 
gift forever from the Hon. Coll, John Page." 

On November 29, 1683, the new church was completed, and 
on January 6, 1684, being the Epiphany, Mr. Jones preached a 
dedicatory sermon. The fees were fixed : For burial in the chan- 
cel, 1 ,000 pounds of tobacco, or f 5, payable to the minister ; for 
burial in the church, 500 pounds of tobacco, payable to the 
parish ; for a funeral sermon £2, payable to the minister ; for 
registering christenings and burials, three pounds of tobacco 
each, payable to the clerk of the parish ; for digging a grave, 
10 pounds of tobacco, payable to the sexton. The minister's 
salary was fixed at 1,600 pounds of tobacco and cask annually. 

churcli. There is a deed recorded at Yorktown in 1716 from William 
Jones to Richard Easter for forty acres "in y« place called Indian Field 
on the hranches of a swamp issuing out from j» north side of Queen's 
Creek, being part of a tract of land lately purchased by j« s' W™ Jones 
of &, from Ralph Graves, father of Ralph Graves," " b^inning at a 
corner red oak near y Old Church bounding upon John Custia, W™ 
Jackson, and Richard Easter, & from thence running down Jno Custis' 
line to a Poplar at y= head of jo Old Church Spring Branch, k from 
thence along y water course to a corner aah," etc. Daniel Parke owned 
land in this quarter which went to John Custia, who married hia 
daughter. 



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Petition of the Vestry for a New Ciiuncit. 



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98 WiLLIAMSBl'RG, 

Among the benefactors of the church, besides those already 
mentioned, were Sir Edmund Andros, the governor, who, in 
1694. gave to Bruton parish a large silver server; Mrs. Cath- 
arine Besouth, who gave f 10 by her will for the purchase of a 
piece of plate engraved with her name; and Mrs. Alice Page, 
who, in 1698, gave "one gold pulpitt cloath and cushion of Best 
velvett." A church Bible was given by Captain Baldwin 
Mathews, which, in 1742, "being in danger of spoiling by 
laying in the chest, Mr. Thomas Cobbs agreed to take, promis- 
ing to send for another when the same shall be required." A 
font stone vras imported' in 1691, and is doubtless the one 
now in the church. 

Until 171 1 the church had no bell, but a curious incident 
proved that "it is an ill wind that blows nobody good," and 
brought this necessary article of furniture. An English-man- 
of-war, the Garland, employed in driving off the pirate vessels 
which then infested the waters, was wrecked on the coast of 
North Carolina. The stores of the ship were taken to Hamp- 
ton, and Spotswood caused the bell to be brought up to Wil- 
liamsburg, "where -there was none before to call the people to 
churcli."* 

Of course, the establishment of the college at Middle Plan- 
tation, "01d-i?eilds," in 1693, and the removal thither of the 
capital in 1699, had great effect upon the church. We notice in 
the records frequent mention of repairs, and it becomes evident 
that the ideas of the vestry had out-grown the litnits of the 
modest church first erected. In 1710, the vestry, consisting of 
"Hen : Tyler, Rich*. Kendall, Rich''. Bland, ff red Jones, Hugh 
Norvell, Wm. Timson, Amb. Cobbs, E. Jenings, and David 
Bray," complained in a petition to the burgesses that the 
present church had grown "ruinous," and asked pecuniary aid 
to build a new church to accommodate the crowd of strangers 
brought together by the general assembly, the courts, the coun- 

= Calendar of Virginia State Papers I., 35. The pedestal of the font 
of the church on the main, preserved in the Magazine, was probably a 
part of the Jamestown church furniture. 

' Spotawoo<.'a Letters, I., p. 35. 



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Bbuton Church. 99 

cils, and other public agencies. As the petition received the 
active support of the speaker of the house of burgesses, John 
Holloway, and of the governor, Alexander Spotswood, it could 
not well fail. The contractor was James Morris, "carpenter 
and chief workman in the city of Williamsburg, who came into 
Virginia with Coll. Ludwell." "In order to beat down the 
extravagant prices of workmen," the governor and Edmund 
Jenings volunteered to deliver in place "the brick necessary in 
building the church," at 15 shillings per thousand, "provided 
some of ye vestry would undertake the other parts." March i, 
1712, Rev. James Blair, clerk, submitted to the vestry in behalf 
of Governor Spotswood, a plan of the proposed church ; and 
on March 28, 1712, a new draught was ordered. The length 
of the building was to he 75 feet, of which the governor agreed 
to put up 22 feet at his own expense. Its width was to he 28 
feet, and the church wall 23 feet high. The general assembly 
contributed two wings, 19 feet long by 22 feet wide. The cost 
of building the church, exclusive of the two wings, was esti- 
mated at £500, a sum equal to $10,000 in present money. 

The church was finished about December, 1715, and on No- 
vember 16, 1716, an order was made by the vestry that "the 
church- wardens dispose of all the material belonging to the old 
church, except the brick." In 1717 the new church was 
shingled. 

In 1716 John Custis obtained leave to place upon the north 
wall of the church, where it still is, the marble slab to the 
memory of the grandfather of his wife, the Hon. Daniel Parke, 
which slab was in the okl church. And when, in 1720, Dr. 
William Cocke, whp was also secretary of slate, died, a 'tablet 
was placed opposite on the south wall to his memory. 

On January 9, 1717, it was ordered that "Mr. Commissary 
lilair sitt in the head pew in the church and that he may 
carry any minister into the same." 'The j'outh of the college 
was given "that part of ye Gallery as"7ar from the pillar on the 
south side of the Isle of the Church to the north side of the 
Church," and it was also decided that "further leave be given 
them to put a door with a lock and key to it to the stairs of 



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lOO WiLLIAUSBURG, 

the said gallerj'. and the sexton to "keep the key." I In 1721, a 
gallery for the parish boys was ordered to be builTon the south 
side of the church adjoining the gallery of the students in the 
west end. In 1720 John Holloway, having obtained leave of 
the governor, was permitted to erect a gallery in the end of 
the south wing of the church, at his own charges. In 1724, 
Rev. James Blair reported that the church was provided with 
"a great Bible, 2 Common Prayer Books, the Homilies, Gan- 
nons, pulpit cloths, altar and altar pieces. Font, cushion, sur- 
plice, Bell, &c.," and that there were no families and fifty com- 
municants in the parish. 

The pulpit was at the southeast corner, and was reached by 
a flight of winding stairs. The chancel was at the east end, 
and the pews were rectangular. The pew of the governor, 
which, in the old church, had been in the chancel, appears to 
have been placed in the new church in the southeast corner. 
There is still a lady living in Williamsburg who remembers the 
red canopy hanging there which originally marked the place 
where he sat. Whitewashed walls, oil-painted mahogany seats, 
and stone-flagged aisles, were features of Bruton, in common 
with other old churches of the period. 

In 1744 the vestry petitioned the general assembly to pro- 
vide the church with an organ as something "both ornamental 
and useful." In 1752 John Blair, Philip Ludwell. John Robin- 
son and Peyton Randolph, esquires, and Armistead Burwell, 
James Power and Benjamin Powell, gentlemen, were appointed 
by the assembly a committee to enlarge the church and pur- 
chase an organ. The cost of the first was not to exceed £300, 
and of the second, not to exceed £200, but £100 were added by 
private subscription, and the organ actually cost £300. In 1755 
the vestry appointed the minister, "the Reverend and Honor- 
able Commissary Tliomas Dawson," and Hon. John Blair. 
Esq., Peyton Randolph, Esq., Benjamin Waller or any three of 
them, "to agree with a person to build a loft for the organ": 
and Mr. Peter Pelham,'' son of the early New England artist 

' Colonel Charles Pelhani, of the Revolution, was his son, and Major 
Jobn Pelham, of the Confederate army, a descendent. 



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102 Williamsburg, 

of the same name, was elected organist. This organ is believed 
to have been the first church organ in the United States, just 
as the theatre in Williamsburg, erected in 1716, was the first 
theatre, and the asylum for the insane, erected in 1769. was 
the first public asylum. 

Under the act of the assembly, in 1752, the east end of the 
church was extended twenty-five feet, so as to make the eastern 
wall of the same distance from the wings as the west end, 
thereby causing the church to assume its present proportion of 
100 feet in length by z8 feet in width, the wings being reduced 
from 19 feet to 14^ feet. 

The present brick wall enclosing the graveyard, was built by 
Samuel Spurr, of Williamsburg, in 1752, and cost £320. It will 
be remembered that John Page gave "60 feet of land every 
way" for the church yard, but the act providing for laying out 
Williamsburg provided also for condemning land for the 
church, and the map of the town in the college library shows 
that the church-yard was was so enlarged' as to take Jn two 
acres on Duke of Gloucester Street. Around three-fourths of 
this the brick wall was built, and its front is, on measurement, 
330 feet. The other portion of the two acres unenclosed was 
sold not many years ago to private land owners. 

In 1753 the vestry ordered that half of the south gallery, 
nearest the pulpit, be appropriated to the use of the college ; 
and, in 1762, Benjamin Waller and others were permitted to 
erect a gallery on the north side for their families. 

In 1761 James Tarpley gave a handsome new bell to the 
parish, and, in 1769, Benjamin Powell agreed with the vestry 
consisting of such men as Benjamin Waller, Lewis Burwell, 
William Graves, Robert Carter Nicholas, Thomas Everard, 
George Wythe, Frederick Bryan, and Colonel John Prentis, to 
build a new steeple and repair the church for £410; and he was 
given "the old Beli and the materials of the old steeple." This 
order relating to the building of the present steeple, does not 
fix the date of the brick tower, upon which stood the old steeple 
referred to. This, like the church itself, is built in the 
Flemish bond, a form of brick construction introduced into 
Virginia not eariier than 1710. 



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Bruton Church. 103 

The bell presented by James Tarpley, is perhaps the most 

historic beH in the South, if not in the Union. It rang out the 
news of the repeal of the stamp act in 1766. and of the adop- 
tion of the first complete act of sovereignty by any of tbe colo- 
nies (May 15, 1776), being thus six weeks ahead of the Phila- 
delphia bell in proclaiming independence. To the sound of its 
clear musical voice the Union Jack was hauled down from the 
capitol at the east end of the Duke of Gloucester Street, and 
a continental flag run up in its place. Afterwards, on October 
19, 1781, it celebrated the surrender of Lord Comwallis, and 
later the peace with Great Britain, proclaimed in Williamsburg, 
May I, 1783. 

James Tarpley, the donor, was a prominent citizen o£ Wil- 
liamsburg, and was partner in merchandizing with Hon. John 
Blair, Dr. George Gilmer, and William Prentis. 

As to the church government during the colonial period, the 
vestry controlled the church, and out of their number were 
elected each year two persons called churchwardens, who saw 
to the enforcement of the church laws. These churchwardens, 
who were assisted in their duties by an officer called a sides- 
man, looked after the poor children, who were taught to read, 
write and cipher, and reported to the county courts the evil- 
doers, who, contrary to Bishop Meade's suppositions, were 
promptly punished, as the county records show. The vestry 
had the power of taxing the people of the parish for all the 
purposes of the church. 

In the vestry's course regarding the ckction of ministers, 
the independent character of the Virginians was remarkably 
illustrated. Under the practice in England, the minister held 
his living for life, but the vestry of Bruton would only elect 
their ministers for a year at a time. As the Revolution ap- 
proached, the church became one of the stI^J^gholds of liberty, 
and every Sunday, while the assembly or conventions were 
sitting in Williamsburg, some patriotic minister addressed the 
members. 

The effect of the American Revolution in separating church 
and State reduced the Episcopal church to a very low condition 



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I04 Williamsburg, 

in Virginia. The glebe lands were confiscated, and for many 
years the congregation in Williamsburg was very small and 
almost lifeless. The church building appears to have been used 
by all sects of Christians, and it was not until the election, in 
1826, of Rev. William H. Wilmer, D. D., as rector of the 
church and president of the college, that the old form of re- 
ligion began to take on new life. 

The new-felt interest was first shown in the changes made 
in the body of the church to adapt it to the changed conditions. 
In 1829 the vestry ordered that the pews be cut down and 
painted, and the church whitewashed, which was done at a cost 
of $200, The access to the gallery in the east end had been by 
the steps on the outside, and, in 1834, these were removed, and 
in lieu thereof, new steps inside were made. During the same 
year Right Rev. Bishop Moore was requested to secure mone- 
tary aid, if possible, from the vestry of Trinity Church, New 
York, "in view of the decayed condition of the church and the 
poverty of the parishioners," The old organ having become 
useless, a new one was put in about this time. 

The vestry began to insist on their exclusive right to the 
church building, and when a universalist minister from the 
North, by the name of Dods, applied, in 1831, to preach in 
the church, his application was refused. His cause was cham- 
pioned by Robert Anderson, a leading citizen of Williamsburg, 
who appealed to the general assembly. But he did not meet 
with the encouragement he expected; for, when a motion was 
made in the house of delegates Co refer his petition to a com- 
mittee, permission was refused, and the petition itself was re- 
jected. Since this time, the title and control over the church 
have been uninterruptedly recognized to be in the vestry of 
congregation. 

On April 23, 1835, Mrs, Gait was permitted to dispose of 
the old organ, and to apply the proceeds to the ornamentation 
or improvement of the organ, gallery, or to such other use in 
the church as she might think expedient. In 1839, the interior 
of the church was remodelled, and the space for church service 
reduced more than one-third by a partition wall, which was 



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lo6 Williamsburg, 

built across the interior. The chancel was removed from the 
east end, where it had been for one hundred and twenty-five 
years, and built out from the newly-erected partition wait in 
the west. The part of the church constituting the nave was 
converted into a room for Sunday-school. 

The church, thus turned around on the inside, was entered 
through doors placed in each of the eastern, north and southern 
ends. The tower in the west, through which the congregation 
used to pass, was converted into a place for storing coal, and 
the old pulpit was taken down and the flag stones removed 
from the aisles. July 14, 1840, the town authorities were per- 
mitted by the vestry to set up the town clock in the steeple of 
the church. This town clock is believed to have been the clock 
originally placed on the capitol at the time of its restoration, in 
175 1. 

During the war between the States, the church, like all the 
other public buildings in town, was used as a hospital, but 
when peace was declared, it returned to its old uses. In 1885 
a tin roof was placed on the church, and, in 1886, various other 
additions and changes were made. Thus the floors were re- 
paired, the walls plastered and kalsomimed, the side lamps 
removed, chandeliers substituted, the pulpit against the dividing 
wail taken down, and a reading desk and communion table sup- 
plied; and finally the gallery in the north wing of the church 
was removed. To these and other improvements the Catherine 
Memorial Society placed $300 in the treasury, and on March 
24, 1887, the vestry granted the request of this society to repair 
the old monuments in the church-yard. 

In 1903, the vestry inaugurated measures to restore the 
church to its original form and appearance ; and, wholly 
through the influence and energy of the rector, Rev. W. A. R. 
Goodwin, enough money has been raised to effect this interest- 
ing work. The pews, pulpit and chancel are now situated in 
the same relative positions which they occupied in 1715, and 
the entrance is again through the tower of the church. As the 
old clock had long since ceased to tell the hours, a large new 
clock as been placed in the steeple, and a new organ has taken 
the place of the old. 



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BBUTo^ Church. 107 

Every effort, however, has been made to preserve as much 
of the old church and furniture as possible, and thus the stu- 
dents' gallery in the west end is a relic of great interest ; for the 
railings and balusters placed there nearly 200 years ago, show 
many initials cut by knives of the restless youths, who attended 
church in colonial times. Then, in the steeple hangs the liberty 
BELL of Virginia — "the gift of James Tarpley, 1761," and its 
voice is as sweet and silvery as ever. Finally, the old parish 
register, the font of 1691, and the beautiful communion ser- 
vices may still be seen. 

Something has been already said of the first two relics, and 
now, in conclusion, a short description of the communion ser- 
vices may be deemed proper. There are three sets, and the old- 
est, known as the Jamestown Service, consists of three pieces, 
two of which, a chalice and paten, were originally presented, in 
1661, to the church at Jamestown, by Colonel Francis Moryson, 
then acting as governor in the absence of Sir William Berke- 
ley, in England, each bearing the following inscription : Mixe 
not holy things with profane. Ex dono Francisci Morrison, 
Armigeri, Anno Domi, 1661." The manufacturer of the pieces 
was also the maker of a celebrated cup owned by the Black- 
smiths' Company, London, 1655, and subsequently purchased 
at a sale for the large sum of ^378. The third piece of this ser- 
vice, not so old as the other two, is an alms basin, bearing the 
date 1739, with the inscription "for the use of James City 
Parish Church." 

The second service, known as the College Service,' consists 
of a silver gilt sacrament cup and paten, the gift, in 1775, of 
Lady Rebecca (Stanton) Gooch to William and Mary College, 
Of these, the cup, which is two-handled, is beautifully chased 
and embellished with applique leaves, and ornamented with 
the arms of Stanton, impaling a family not identified'. It is 
dated 1686, and bears the hall mark of Peter Haraden, whose 
name is found on the copper plate in Goldsmith's Hall. The 
other piece, the plate, bears a much later date, 1737, and its 
workmanship, though beautifid, is inferior to that of the cup. 

•William and Mary Coll. Quarterly, VI,, 40. 



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I08 WiLLIAMSBUBGj 

The third service, known as the Bruton Parish Service, con- 
sists of a flagon, dated 1766, a chalice dated 1764, and an alms 
basin without mark, but bearing, like the other two pieces, the 
arms of England used during the reign of George III. This 
service was probably presented by Francis Fauquier, who was 
governor from 1758 to 1768, and who was interred the latter 
year in the north aisle of the church. 

Among the new furniture which Mr. Goodwin' hopes soon 
to add to the church, is a Bible, promised by King Edward VII., 
of England, and a lectern, promised by Theodore Roosevelt, 
president of the United States. 

In this church and church-yard sleep many who were well 
known in their day: Two governors, Edward Nott and 
Francis Fauquier; three councillors, John Page, David Bray, 
and John Blair ; three secretaries of State, Daniel Parke, Wil- 
liam Cocke and Edmund Jenings; Virginia's first law reporter, 
Edward Barradall; a judge of the United States Supreme 
Court, John Blair, Jr.; a United States district judge, Cyrus 
Griffin, and his wife. Lady Christine Stuart, daughter of the 
Earl of Traquair ; five presidents of the college, William Daw- 
son, William Yates, William Stith, Thomas Dawson, and Wil- 
liam H. Wilmer; and many other persons of reputation in their 
day and generation — law-makers, doctors, preachers and 
merchants. 

List of the Ministers of Bruton Parish. 
Rowland Jones, 1674-1688; Samuel Eburne, 1688-1697; 
Cope Doyley, 1697- 1702; Solomon Wheatley, 1702- 1710; James 
Blair, 1710-1743; Thomas Dawson, 1743-1759; William Yates, 
1759-1764; James Horrocks, 1764-1771; John Camm, 1771- 
1773; John Bracken, 1773-1818; R. Keith, D. D., 1821-1826; 
William H. Wilmer, 1826-1827; Adam Empie, 1828-1836; 
William Hodges, D. D., 1837-1848; Henry M. Denison, 1848- 
1852; George Wilmer, D. D., 1856; Thomas M. Ambler, 1860- 

' Mr. Goodwin has published a very handsome volume on Bniton 
Church, beautifully printed and illustrated. A rew and enlarged edition 
will soon appear. 



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liHUTuN Church. 109 

1873; George Wilnier, D. D., {second pastorate), 1872-1876; 
Jacquciin Meredith, 1876-1877; Henry Wall, S. T. D., 1877- 
1880; Alexander Overby, 1880-1885; I'- G. Bnrcli, 1885-1887; 
Lyman B. Wharton, D. D., 1888 ; T. C. Page, 1889-1893 ; W. T. 
Roberts, 1894-1902; W. A, R. Goodwin, 1903- 



1 UUKLISK OF UAVI» liKAV. 



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in. 

The College of William and Maky, 

Early History. 

The visit of Pocahontas to England in 1616 caused much 
interest to be taken in the natives of Virginia, and in 1617 
King James I. issued his letters to the bishops of England for 
collecting funds for a college in Virginia, to educate Indian 
youths. On November 18, 1618, the London Company gave 
orders for the establishment at Henrico of a university, of 
which this Indian college should be a branch, and endowed it 
with 10,000 acres of land. May 26, 1619, Sir Edwin Sandys 
reported that £1,500 sterling had been collected for the college 
and more was expected to come in. July 31, 1619, the general 
assembly of Virginia, at its very first session, petitioned the 
London Company to send "when -they shall think it most con- 
venient, workmen of all sorts, for the erection of the university 
and college." Accordingly, they sent, a few months later, 
about a hundred persons, some farmers, to till the land and 
other tradesmen, such as brickmakers, carpenters, smiths, etc., 
to get ready the material for the erection of the building. A 
communion set, a library, and large sums of money were pre- 
sented to the college by charitably-inclined persons. Richard 
Downes, son of Mr. Edward Downes, came over, hoping to re- 
ceive employment as professor, and George Thorpe, one of the 
king's privy council, and a member of the council of the Lon- 
don Company, was appointed deputy, or manager, of the 
college servants and lands.' But while these steps were being 
taken for the higher education, the secondary education was not 
overlooked. 

In 1621. Rev. Patrick Copland, who had been employed by 
the East India Company in converting the native youth in 
India to the Christian religion, set sail for England in the 
Royal James; and during the journey homeward, meeting with 
some ships on their way to Virginia, became greatly interested 
in the future of the colony. Encouraged by what he learned, 
' Records of Ike Virginia Company of London. 



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College of William and Mary. hi 

he collected from the mariners and passengers, to be employed 
for the use of a church or school in Virginia, the sum of £70, 
which, on his arrival in London, he delivered to the authorities 
of the London Company. The sum was soon after increased to 
iioo by a gift of £30 from another source, and the question 
whether a church or a school should be erected was referred 
to a committee, who decided that there was more need of a 
public free school than a church, especially as through want 
thereof the planters ha<l been hitherto constrained,' "to their 
great costs to send their children from thence hither to be 
taught." The company decided that the fund, equivalent to 
$2,500 in present figures, should he used to establish, at Charles 
City (now City Point) a free school, which should hold due 
dependence on the university at Henrico, and be called the 
"East India School," after its East India benefactors. It was 
to be conducted by a master and usher, and for Its erection and 
support, 1,000 acres at Charles City were set apart, and a 
carpenter and five apprentices sent over. 

In recognition of his zeal in the service of the colony and 
his experience as a missionary, the company, on July 3, 1622, 
appointed Mr. Copland rector of the intended college for the 
Indians as well as a member of the council in Virginia,* 

On Wednesday, April 17, 1622. Copland, at the invitation 
of the London Company, preached a thanksgiving sermon in 
London for the happy success of affairs in Virginia the pre- 
vious year. But about the middle of July it was learned from 
Captain Daniel Gookin, who came from Newport News, that 
on Good Friday, March 22, the Indians, whose children were 
so largely in the proposed scheme of instruction, had risen and 
barbarously destroyed George Thorpe, the noble superintendent 
in charge of the college lands, and 346 more of the unsuspecting 
settlers. The university, college, and free school were all three 
abandoned, and Copland did not go to Virginia. 

And yet the example was not lost. Private persons took 
up the design, and in 1624 Edward Palmer, of London, de- 

* Neill, London Company, 254. 
'Nelll, lAfe of Patrick Copland. 



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1 12 Williamsburg, 

vised all his lands in Virginia and New England for the estab- 
lishment of a university and schools in Virginia, to be called 
Academia Virginieiisis ei Oxoniensis. It is said that he pur- 
chased an island in the Susquehanna River for the purpose of 
his intended academy, but the estate was wasted by his execu- 
tors, and nothing came out of his philanthropic schemes. 

A better fortune attended, a few years later, the benefaction 
of a resulent of the colony. Three years before John Harvard 
bequeathed his estate to the college near Boston, Benjamin 
Syms, of Elizabeth City County, Virginia, left the first legacy 
by a-resident of the English plantations for. the promotion of 
education. This school was soon succeeded by others. In 
1655 Captain John Moon established a free school in Isle of 
Wight County, and in 1659 Thomas Eaton provided liberally 
for another in Elizabeth City County.* 

In 1660 the general assembly renewed the consideration of 
the question of a college, and Sir William Berkeley and leading 
members of his council made subscriptions, but, as money was 
needed for many purposes, and the colony was in a very rest- 
less condition, the project suffered another postponement. 

Nevertheless, in spite of their isolated settlements, render- 
ing organized action so difficult, the cause of education was 
always dear to the Virginia planters. From the earliest period 
iaws were in operation requiring the education of orphan chil- 
dren according to their estates, and once every year a special 
term of the county court was held to inquire into their observ- 
ance by guardians. The ' courts and vestries saw to it that 
pauper children were properly bound out to learn useful trades, 
and their indentures exacted of their masters schooling from 
one to three years. There was a general employment of tutors 
in the colony, and there were also many free schools, parish 
schools, and private schools. The inventories recorded in the 
county courts show that nearly every independent Virginia 
planter, from the earliest times, had a few books. In 1668 Cap- 
tain Henry King gave 100 acres of land for the maintenance of 
a free school in Isle of Wight County; and in 1675 Henry 

• William and Mary College Quart., VI,, 73-77. 



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UmCINAL COI.LBIIE ]!llLDlN(iH, AS SKKN AT THESKNT. 

1. President'* Houhp, erected 173-2, 2. Mnin Building, erected 1 
3. BralTerton Huildinft, ereeted 1723. 



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1 14 Williamsburg, 

Peasley gave 600 acres, together with ten cows and a breeding 
mare, for a free school in Gloucester County. 

In 1685 nine years after Bacon's death, there arrived in 
the ccJony a man who was fortunately possessed of the re- 
quired talents and energy to bring the college to a successful 
issue. This was James Blair, born in Scotland and schooled 
at the university of Edinburgh, where he took the degree of 
master of arts in 1673. He was ordained as a minister of the 
Church of England, but as neither the Episcopal form of gov- 
ernment nor the Episcopal mode of worship found much favor 
in Scotland, Mr. Blair quitted his preferments there and went 
to London, where, for some time, he was employed in the office 
of the master of the rolls. In this position he attracted the at- 
tention of the bishop of London, who, being very favorably im- 
pressed by both his habits and piety, proposed to him to go as 
■missionary to Virginia. As good fortune would have it, he 
was assigned to the parish of Varina, in Henrico County, where 
it had been intended to build the university and college of 
1618, and the inspirations of his surroundings probably had 
much to do with his subsequent action. 

In 1689 Dr. Blair received the appointment of commissary, 
which placed him at the head of the clergy; and the same 
year a man of almost equal energy was sent over as governor 
of the colony. This was Francis Nicholson, whose enlarged 
ideas on education and government placed him much above 
the average colonial governor. The next year, in July, the 
clergy held a convention at Jamestown, and Dr. Blair submitted 
a paper entitled "Severall Propositions for a free school and 
college, to be humbly presented to the consideration of the next 
general assembly." These propositions contemplated the edu- 
cation of the white youth of Virginia, the training of ministers 
for the church, and the conversion of the Indian heathen by 
founding a college, to consist of three grades, viz.: (i) gram- 
mar, (Latin and Greek), (2) philosophy, and (3) divinity. 
The clergy gave the project their endorsement, and Governor 
Francis Nicholson and his council, being no less favorable, em- 



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Rbv. Jambs Hlaih, 
Firit President of Ihe CMp^e. 1003-1743. 



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1 16 Williamsburg, 

powered certain persons in different parts of the colony, to 
solicit subscriptions. Then Dr. Blair and other leading clergy- 
men directed an appeal to the merchants of London "especially 
such as traffick with Virginia," by which means the sum of 
£3,000 was pledged. 

At the meeting of the assembly in April, 1691, Dr. Blair 
was elected agent for the ccJlege and was ordered to visit Eng- 
land for a charter and endowment. He was given elaborate 
instructions, and set out in June, 1691, arriving in London, 
September i. He was successful in interesting .some of the 
highest dignitaries of the church — such as John Tillotson, 
archbishop of Canterbury; Henry Compton, bishop of Lon- 
don ; Edward Stillingfleet, bishop of Worcester ; and the 
famous Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury. By means of 
Dr. Tillotson especially, he had first an interview with Queen 
Mary and later one with King William, both of whom promised 
to favor the enterprise. Dr. Tillotson got the king to appoint 
November 12, 1691, as the day for the presentation of the 
memorial with which Dr. Blair was charged by the assembly 
of Virginia. On that day Dr. Blair was present in the council 
chamber, all ready and anxious. "I was introduced by the 
archbishop of Canterbury and my Lord Effingham. I kneeled 
down and said these words: 'Please, your majesty, here is an 
humble supplication from the government of Virginia for your 
majesty's charter to erect a free school and college for the 
education of their youth;' and so I delivered it into his hand. 
He answered: "Sir, I am glad that the colony is upon so good 
a design, and will promote it to the best of my power.' " The 
king gave Br. Blair's petition to his principal secretary of state. 
Lord Nottingham, by whom it was soon after turned over to 
the lord commissioners of the treasury.' 

They retained it a long time, but at last made a favorable 
report, which was considered by the privy council September 
I, 1692, at a court held at Whitehall, exactly a year after Dr. 
Blair's first arrival in England. At this memorable meeting, 

•Perry, Papers relating to the Church in Virginia, 6. 



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Hon, Robbbt Boylb. 



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1 18 Williamsburg, 

Que«n Mary presided in the absence of the king, and an order 
was entered, confirming the report and directing the lords 
commissioners to issue all the necessary suggestions for the 
charter. For the uses of the proposed college, the following 
funds and sources of revenue were provided at the meeting, 
viz.: (i) the sum of £1,985, 14s. lod.. arising out of the quit 
rents in Virginia; (2) the proceeds of the tax imposed by an 
act of parliament, passed in the year 1673, of one penny per 
pound upon all the tobacco exported from Maryland and Vir- 
ginia to foreign ports other than England; (3) the profits of 
the office of surveyor-general of the colony; (4) 10,000 acres 
of land in the Pamunkey Neck, and 10,000 acres on the Black- 
water, to be held in free and common soccage, and upon the 
quit rent of two copies of Latin verses, yearly delivered at the 
house of the governor or lieutenant-governor every fifth day 
of November. This was a handsome endowment, but, in addi- 
tion. Dr. Blair, while waiting in London, demonstrated his 
energetic and practical disposition by securing two other funds, 
which were rather remarkable in their character. 

Pirates were very numerous in those days, and the govern- 
ment had often to make compromises in dealing with them, 
which would not find much favor in these days. It appears, 
therefore, that some years before Dr. Blair's visit to London, 
the English authorities had caused it to be made known that 
any pirate coming into port by a certain time should be for- 
given his past transgressions and permitted to retain a part of 
his ill-gotten treasure. Many availed themselves of this con- 
cession to make their peace with the government ; but there 
were three pirates — Edward Davies, John Hinson and Lionel 
Delawafer— who came in after the date set by the law, and, as 
a consequence, were arrested and put in jail. They sent a hum- 
ble petition to the privy council for pardon, alleging that they 
did not know of the proclamation till it was too late to come in 
by the day appointed. Dr. Blair saw his chance, hunted the 
pirates up, and offered to use his influence in their behalf, if 
they would consent to give the sum or value of £300 of the 



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College of William and Marv, iig 

goods under seizure to the use of his proposed college. This 
the pirates readily agreed to do, and, through the intervention 
of Dr. Tillotson and Dr. Compton, the pirates were pardoned, 
and an order was entered by the prtvy council on March lo, 
1692, for restoring to them their treasure, minus the amount 
promised to the college in Virginia. 

The other fund grew out of the will of Hon. Robert Boyle, 
the eminent natural philosopher, who died in January, 1692, 
not long after Dr. Blair's arrival in London. The will providetl 
that £4,000 sterling of his money should be employed in "pious 
and charitable uses," but the testator did not designate the 
character or locality of the beneficiary. By means of Bishop 
Burnet, Dr. Blair obtained an introduction to the Earl of 
Burlington, Boyle's nephew and executor, and entreated him 
to direct the fund to the support of an Indian school at the 
college. Burlington was interested, and consented to an in- 
vestment in an English manor called "the BrafEerton,"' in the 
north riding of Yorkshire, from which the rents, subject to 
£43 for Harvard College and £45 for the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in New England, were to go to the college 
in Virginia. By the terms of the deed, the college was to keep 
as many Indian children in meat, drink, washing, clothes, medi- 
cine, books and education, from the first beginning of letters 
till they should be ready to receive orders and be sent abroad 
to convert the Indians as the yearly income of the premises 
should amount to at the rate of fourteen pounds for every such 
child. 

In the meantime, the charter itself of the college was drag- 
ging its slow length along through the different offices of the 
government in London. The English officials looked upon the 
colonies as a source of revenue rather than as an equal part of 
the empire; and Seymour, the attorney-general, to whom the 
draft was referred, was in no hurry. The story goes that Dr. 

'The manor of Brafferton, in England, was the scene, as the vener- 
able Bede informs us, where the first British missionary, Pauliniu, 
baptized in the little river Swale 10,006 British heathen. A map of 
the estate, drawn in 1772 by William Pape, surveyor, hangs in the 
college library. 



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1 20 Williamsburg, 

Blair, impatient to return to Virginia, waited upon him and 
reminded him of the good work the college would perform in 
educating young ministers among the Virginians, who "had 
souls to save as well as the people of England." "Souls," ex- 
claimed the imperious Seymour, "damn your souls; make 
tobacco." 

At length, however, all the forms were satisfied and the 
charter was duly signed on February 8, 1693, in the fourth 
year of the reign of William and Mary. The college was 
named "The College of William and Mary in Virginia," in 
honor of these monarchs; and on May 14, 1694, the college of 
Heralds in London issued authority for a coat-of-arms, which 
is described in Burke's General Armory as follows: "Virginia 
College, Vert a college or edifice ar, masoned ppr-, in chief the 
rising sun or, the hemisphere of the third," or as rendered in 
simple English : "On a green field a college building of silver, 
with a golden sun, showing half its orb, rising above it." Thus, 
the true college colors are not the orange and white in use at 
present, but green, silver and gold, which makes undoubtedly 
an agreeable combination. The devices of this coat have come 
down to us on the college seal, and it is an interesting fact that 
no other college, American or even English, has perhaps a seal 
of such high origin. Woodward, in his "Ecclesiastical Heraldry" 
(1894), says: "The coats-of-arms for the several colleges are, 
as will hereafter appear, mostly assumed from those borne by 
their respective families. ... It does not seem that they were 
ever the subjects of authoritative grants from the college of 
arms, from whose jurisdiction the university was exempted by 
a special charter from Henry H." 

The charter provided that, until the college was, fully estab- 
lished, its property should be vested in eighteen trustees, ap- 
pointed by the general assembly, who should also act as visitors 
and governors, with the power of electing successors, provided 
the number of the visitors should not exceed twenty at any 
time. After the establishment was complete, the survivors of 
the original trustees were to convey all the property confided to 



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Bound AHT Btohe. 



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122 Williamsburg, 

their custody to the president and masters or professors, who 
should then be "a body politic in deed and in name." The 
visitors and their successors should, in the meantime, and foi: 
all time, have the power to appoint ail the professors and gov- 
ern the institution, according to the statutes and orders to be 
drawn up by the trustees, to elect annually a rector to preside 
at their meetings, and every seven years a chancellor, who 
should be "some eminent and discreet person," capable of 
giving good and sound advice. Dr. Blair, who had been elected 
by the assembly president during his natural life, and confirmed 
in this office by the charter, was made also first rector of the 
board of visitors and governors. Henry Compton, bishop of 
London, was declared first chancellor. The trustees named in 
the charter were Francis Nicholson, William Cole, Ralph 
Wormeley, William Byrd and John Lear, esquires ; James Blair, 
John Farnifold, Stephen Fouace and Samuel Gray, clerks; 
Thomas Milner, Christopher Robinson, Charles Scarbrough, 
John Smith, Benjamin Harrison, Miles Cary, Henry Hartwell, 
William Randolph and Matthew Page, gentlemen. The college 
society was to consist of one president, six masters or profes- 
sors and a hundred scholars, more or less, graduates and non- 
graduates, and the faculty was given a right to elect "from 
their own body, or from the visitors or from the better sort of 
inhabitants" of the colony a person to represent the college in 
the house of burgesses. 

The location of the college, as first proposed, was a broad 
plateau, just above Yorktown, commanding a splendid view 
of York River ; but the charter gave the general assembly the 
right to choose another place, and in October, 1693, they de- 
clared Middle Plantation the "most convenient and proper" 
site, and ordered that the college "be erected and built as near 
the church now standing in Middle Plantation old fFeilds as 
convenience will permitt," They also gave to the college the 
proceeds of certain duties on skins and furs. Soon after, 
on December 20, 1693, the trustees purchased from Colonel 
Thomas Ballard, for £170, 330 acres west of the church and 



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College of William and Maky. 123 

reaching back to the meanders of Archer's Hope swamp. This 
land had been sold to Ballard by Thomas Ludwell, the secre- 
tary of state, who purchased it of John White. The next year 
boundary stones, with the royal monogram and the figures 
1694 upon them, were set up, and the work of erecting the 
college building immediately began with the funds in hand, 
under the supervision of a committee of the trustees. 

Mr. Thomas Hadlcy, brought from England by Dr. Blair, 
had the immediate management, and Colonel Daniel Parke 
furnished the bricks, which were made nearby, at a cost of 14 
shillings per thousand. The plan of the college was drawn by 
Sir Christopher Wren, the eminent architect, who designed 
St. Paul's Cathedral in London, and contemplated a rectangular 
structure two stories and a half high, one hundred and thirty- 
six feet long and forty feet wide, and with two wings sixty feet 
long and twenty-five feet wide by outside measurement. In 
1697 the then rector of the college. Rev, Stephen Fouace, re- 
ported to Governor Andros that they had completed the front 
and north side of the designed rectangle, and that, as they had 
gone beyond their supply of money, Mr. Blair had been desired 
to go to England again. 

The walls of the college, thus [lartially constructed, were 
built in the English bond, having alternate courses of stretchers 
and glazed headers. They were more than three feet thick 
at the base, and contained 840,000 bricks. The recitation rooms 
were in the first two stories of the front, and the north wing 
was made into a hall, where meals were served and the college 
exercises held. The rooms of the president, officers and schol- 
ars were in the garrets, over the front and the hall. 

While Dr. lilair was in England in 1693, he secured the 
services of another Scotchman, Rev, Mungo Inglis, a master 
of arts, to act as head of the grammar school. This school 
was opened in 1694 in a building apparently already in use for 
a school, Mr. Inglis was assisted by a Mr. Mullikin as usher, 
and also by a writing master. Mr. Mullikin was succeeded by 
John Hodges as usher, and in May, 1697, the members of th« 



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124 Williamsburg, 

house of burgesses attended the scholastic exercises and ex- 
pressed themselves greatly pleased with the proficiency of the 
scholars. The school hours were from 7 to li o'clock in the 
morning, and from 2 to 6 in the afternoon. 

During this time there was much opposition to Dr. Blair 
and the college. Governor Nicholson was removed to Mary- 
land in 1694, and Sir Edmund Andros^ was appointed his suc- 
cessor in Virginia. Andros was a narrow-minded man, and, 
setting up as a rival to Dr. Blair in ecclesiastical matters, soon 
conceived the strongest objections to him and the college. He 
suspended Dr. Blair from the council, and, it is said, exerted 
all his influence to induce the subscribers to the college fund 
to withhold their subscriptions ; and, in the elections for bur- 
gesses of the colonial assembly, he was active in spreading the 
fear that increased taxes would be the sure result of voting for 
"a collegian." 

Encouraged by the governor, the gentlemen of the council 
who had been "forwardest" to subscribe, became the "back- 
wardest" to pay, and Secretary Ralph Wormeley, who, next 
to the governor, had the greatest authority in Virginia, pre- 
tending a superior claim to the lands in Pamunkey Neck, had 
the college surveyors abruptly stopped in that quarter. As a 
result of their intrigues, only £850 of the £3,000 subscribed was 
collected up to 1697. But Andros was not content, for Dr. 
Blair complains that he descended to expediencies personally 
insulting to him and to the other friends of the college, especial- 
ly to Governor Nicholson, of Maryland. 

He stirred up "a sparkish young gentleman" named Daniel 
Parke, to challenge Nicholson when he came from Annapolis 

'Sir Edmund Andros was born in London December 6, 1637; served 
in the army against the Dutch, and in 1672 was appointed a major in 
Prince Rupert's Dragoons; appointed governor of New York in 1678; 
and in 1681 was governor of New England. When Jame: II. abdicated 
the throne, Andros was deposed bj the people in New England; com- 
missioned governor of Virginia in 1602; was 8ucc«eded by Fralicia 
Nicholson October 9, 1698; governor of Guernsey from 1704 to 1700. 
He died in London February 27, 1714. 



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College of William and Mary. 125 

to the meeting of the college board, and Andros actually put the 
governor of Maryland under a brief arrest. As Dr. Blair was 
protected by his cloth, another course was taken to annoy and 
mortify him. Mrs. Blair, having no pew of her own in Bruton 
church, sat, at the invitation of Lady Berkeley, in the pew of 
her husband. Colonel Philip Ludwell, of Greensprtng, father- 
in-law of young Parke. One Sunday, Parke, strutting into 
church, noticed Mrs. Blair in the pew, and pretending to regard 
it as his own, "rushed with a mighty violence, and seizing her 
by the wrist," pulled her out, in the presence of the minister 
and congregation, who, we are told, were greatly scandalized, 
as they ought to have been, at this "ruffianly and profane 
action."* 

Governor Andros was, however, not long in finding out 
that it was no light thing to antagonize a man of Dr. Blair's 
influence. The latter, on going to England in 1697, complained 
to the authorities, and represented Andros as an enemy to re- 
ligion, the church, the clergy and the college. The bishop of 
London and the archbishop of Canterbury examined into the 
charges, and the result was that Dr. Blair was restored to his 
seat in council, and Andros was recalled. 

There were reasons to expect better times, when Francis 
Nicholson was restored to the government in 1698. He was 
one of the great original friends of the college, and had led in 
the subscriptions by giving £150. At first he acted with all his 
original zeal in the college behalf; for, shortly after his return, 
he persuaded the general assembly to make Middle Plantation, 
where the college was building, the seat of the capital of the 
colony, instead of Jamestown. The effect of Nicholson's per- 
sonal example ts shown by the following cheerful words of Dr. 
Blair, written to the archbishop of Canterbury, February 12, 
1698: "The subscriptions that were made to our college do 

* Parke afterwards eerved with Marlborough and brought the news 
at the victory of Blpnheim to Queen Anne, who honored him with her 
likeneRB He was afterwards governor of Antigua, and wan killed in a 
tumult brought about by liia tyranny. Ilin portrait represents him with 
a medallion containing the queen's portrait. 



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126 Williamsburg, 

now come apace, so that we are in hopes of having it quite 
finished before next winter." Dr. Blair must have alluded to 
the completion of the front and the north wing, as there is no 
evidence that any attempt to erect the south wing in rear was 
made at this time. Nicholson was indefatigable in attending 
to his government, and marked the close of the seventeenth 
century by attempting to secure a reliable census of the popula- 
tion, schools, property and other matters of public interest. 
The commencement exercises at the college in 1700 were of 
unusual interest and were attended by a great concourse of peo- 
ple, some persons coming from New York, Pennsylvania and 
Maryland. 

King William himself took a hand in pushing on the work 
at the college, and issued a proclamation :° 
William K. 
Trusty and welbeloved. Wee Greet you well. Whereas wee have 
thought Gtt that, all due Encouragement be given to y* College of Wm 
and Mary lately founded in our Town of William^urgh in Virginia 
[or promoting Religion n Learning in those parts; wee do therefore 
hereby recomend ye same to you willing and requiring you to doe what- 
aver lyes in you for y= due encouraging y* s* College, and in perticular 
y' you call upon ye pson« y' have promised to contribute towards y» 
maintenance of y« a* College, to pay in full their severall Contributions 
H> the end so Good and pious a Work may be carryed on for y* Generall 
benefit & good of that Country. And soe we bid you farewell. Given at 
our Court at Hampton Court the SOm day of December, 1700, in the 
twelfth yeare of our Reigne. 

By his maj'i™ Command Ja: Vernon. 

I'o our Trusty and Welbeloved ffrancis Nicholson 

Esqr. Our Lieutent and Governr General) 

of our Colony and Dominion of Virginia 

in America; Or to our Commandr in Chief 

of our said Colony for y< time being. 

The educational aspect of things in the colony had im- 
proved, indeed, in other respects. In 1691 Hugh Campbell, 
for the support of persons to teach school, gave 200 acres in 

' A copy of this proclamation hangs in the College Library, attested 
by Dionysiua Wright, clerk of the council, and addressed: "For his 
UajtiH service. These To the SheriSe of Warwick County, Q. D. C." 



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College of William and Mary. 127 

each of the three counties, Norfoik, Isle ot Wight and Nanse- 
mond; and in 1700, William Horton endowed a free school in 
Westmoreland County. licverley, who wrote in 1703, says: 
"There are large tracts of land, houses and other things granted 
to free schools for the education of children in many parts of 
the country, and some of these are so large that of themselves 
they are a handsome maintenance to a master; but the addi- 
tional allowance which gentlemen give with their sons render 
them a comfortable subsistence. These schools have been 
founded by the legacies of weli-tnclined gentlemen, and the 
management of them hath commonly been left to the direction 
of the county court, or the vestry of their respective parishes." 
After this time we learn of many such schools in the county 
records, the most interesting being Mrs. Mary Whaley's free 
school in York County, established in 1706, and William liroad- 
rib's in James City County, established about (he same time. 

But Nicholson and Blair were of similar temperaments, 
each being fond of having his own way, and it was not many 
years before these erst-time friends were at cross purposes. Dr. 
Blair undertook to make some suggestions about the mode of 
conducting government, which mightily offended Nicholson, 
and his hot, peppery temper caused him to fly from one extreme 
to another. It is stated that Nicholson encouraged the boys of 
the grammar school in 1704 to bar Dr. Blair out of the gram- 
mar school, and provided them with his pistols for that purpose. 
But Nicholson published a pamphlet, in which he declared that 
the whole affair was only a merry prank of the boys to get a 
little longer vacation at Christmas, and that, while he had given 
them his pistols and some powder, they had no solid shot, and 
no one ever dreamed of doing President Blair any real harm. 

Dr. Blair is not exactly a fair witness, but he ascribes the 
change in Nicholson to jealousy of Dr. Archibald Blair, who 
was the president's brother and visited a young daughter of 
Major Lewis Burwell, of King's Creek, with whom Nicholson 
was desperately infatuated. He sent for Dr. James Blair, and 
abruptly addressed him in these words : "Sir, your brother is a 
villain and you have betrayed me." Then, with hands up- 



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I2S Williamsburg, 

lifted to heaven, he shouted: "Mr. Blair, take notice. I 
vow to the eternal God that I will be revenged on you 
and ail your family." It is said that Nicholson often vowed 
that, if Miss Burwell married any other than himself, "he would 
cut the throats of three persons, the bridegroom, the minister 
and the justice who should give the license." So much talk oc- 
curred that one of the governor's London friends conceived it 
proper to write him a letter in which he besought him not to 
give the lady or her relations any further molestation, "but to 
remember that English women were the freest in the world 
and not to be won by constraint, and that it was not in Vir- 
ginia as it was in some barbarous countries, where the tender 
lady is often dragged into the lover's arms just reeking in the 
blood of her nearest relatives." Nicholson, however, perse- 
vered in his course, and the end came in 1705, when six of the 
council, consisting of Robert Carter, James Blair, John Light- 
foot, Matthew Page, Benjamin Harrison and Philip Ludwell 
united in an address to Queen Anne, and the eccentric Nichol- 
son was removed from his government. 

It is fair to state, however, that in this controversy Nichol- 
son had the support of the majority of the clergy, as well as the 
majority of the house of burgesses; and the majority of the 
people, too, appear to have been on his side. After this, two 
heavy calamities befell the college — the resignation of Mungo 
Inglis, the accomplished mast-er of the grammar school, who 
took sides with governor Nicholson, and the accidental burning 
of the college, October 29, 1705. Ever since the year 1700 
the college had been the headquarters of the government, and 
the general assembly had held several sessions there. In April, 
1704, they met for the first time in the new capitol at the other 
end of Duke of Gloucester Street, but the speaker, Peter Bev- 
erley, had his sleeping apartment in the south end of the front 
building of the college. The council had not yet removed, and 
the clergy had held their last annual meeting there in Feb- , 
ruary previous. "The fire broke out about ten o'clock at night, 
in a public time. The governor and all the gentlemen that 
were in town came up to the lamentable spectacle, many getting 



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College of William and Mary. 129 

out of their beds. But the fire had got such power before it 
was discovered that there was no way of putting a. stop to it, 
and, therefore, no attempt was made to that end." 
f However, the college project was now too deeply rooted in 
I the affections of the Virginia people to be laid aside readily, 
1 and immediately after the fire the general assembly renewed 
. the tax on skins and furs for the support of the institution. 
Dr. Blair also went to work again, and, to raise a fund for the 
restoration, dechned, for several years, to receive his salary of 
£150 as president. In 1710 he resigned the rectorship of the 
Jamestown church, which he had held since 1694, and ac- 
cepted that of Bruton church, In order to be still nearer the 
college. During the same year Alexander Spotswood arrived 
as governor, and united cordially with President Blair in the 
work of restoration. Then, about this time, Queen Anne gave 
ii,ooo sterling out of the quit rents of the colony. The college 
was rebuilt on the old walls, and made more convenient and 
durable than before.'" 

Teaching was not discontinued, though, so far, the work 
was only that of a grammar school, to which children of eight 
years and upwards were admitted. Mungo Inglis was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Arthur Blackamore ; and Christopher Jackson 
taught four or five Indian children at the charge of the Braffer- 
ton fund. In 1711 the restoration of the college had pro- 
ceeded far enough to permit the addition of a professorship of 
natural philosophy and mathematics; and, accordingly, a Mr. 
LeFevre had the honor of being the first incumbent. He proved, 
however, a man of irregular habits, and after a term of nine 
months he was removed. 

In 171 1 the people of North Carolina were engaged in a 
bloody war with Tuscarora Indians, and at that critical time 

"Freildent Ewell wu originally of the opinion that the flrit build- 
ing atood 200 leet in rear of the second, but subsequent InveBtigatioD 
caused hira to take a different view, A few years before the second ftre, 
in 18B0, the college building was replastered, and when the old plaster 
waa taken d«wn, "the traces in the walls of an extensive confla^atlon 
were not to be mlstaloen." 



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130 Williamsburg, 

Spotswood deemed it prudent to keep a watchful eye upon the 
tributary Indians. He demanded of each nation several of 
their great men's children to be sent to the college, where they 
served as so many hostages for the good behavior of the rest, 
and at the same time were themselves principled in the Chris- 
tian religion. In 1712 there were twenty of these Indians at 
the college, and among them were the son of the queen of 
Pamunkey, the son and cousin of the king of the Nottoways, 
and the two sons of the chief rulers of the Meherrin Indians. 

In 1716 Mr. Blackamore resigned, and Mr. IngHs was 
again appointed at the head of the grammar school. The same 
year "the college being well nigh compleated again," the mathe- 
matical chair was tendered to Rev. James Fontaine, but it does 
not seem that he ever actually came to Virginia, and not long 
after Rev. Hugh Jones was made professor. 

In 1717 Mrs. Philarity Giles, of Isle of Wight County, left 
by her will her reversionary interest in some lands on the Black- 
water River to the college. In 1718 the general assembly 
made a donation of £1,000, sufficient to establish three scholar- 
ships, at the rate of ii2 per annum for each scholar. In com- 
pliance with the act, the sum of £150 was invested in 2,119 
acres lying on both sides of Nottoway River in the counties of 
Prince George, Surry and Brunswick, the sum of i476, 4 shill- 
ings were paid for seventeen negro slaves, and the balance 
amounting to £373, 16 shillings, was placed out at interest. In 
1719 Mr. Inglis dying, Mr, Jones temporarily assumed the 
duties of grammar master, and the same year a convention of 
the clergy of the colony was held in the college hall. In 1720 
Colonel Edward Hill, of Shirley, in Charles City County, left 
by his will, f 150, which was applied to the purchase of books. 

For several years Rev. Charles Griffin had been employed 
by Spotswood in conducting a school among the Saponies at 
Fort Christanna, in Brunswick County, where he had as many 
as seventy-seven children under his care. But the general as- 
sembly, refusing to incur any expense about the matter. Spots- 
wood, who paid Mr. Griffin £50 per annum out of his own 
pocket, had to discontinue the school, and Griffin was trans- 



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EiBHT Paoe of thk Fibbt S'aculty Book. 



J<z*fi« ^U- fr»/l^,^ 



f I'KKMtUF.NT JAMEH ItLAIK. 



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132 Williamsburg, 

ferred about this time (1720), to the college "to teach the 
Indians instructed there by the Benefaction of the Honorable 
Mr. Boyle." Mr. Jones says that the Saponies "so loved and 
adored him that I have seen them hug him and lift him up in 
their arms, and fain wOuld have chosen him for a king of the 
Sapony nation." 

In 1723 a handsome brick house was built in front of the 
college, out of the proceeds of the Brafferton estate, and it has 
been known as "the Brafferton building"" ever since. It was 
built in the Flemish bond, having blue glazed headers, alternat- 
ing with stretchers in the same courses. It was two stories and 
a half high, with dormer windows, was 54 feet long and 34 
feet wide, and contained 12 rooms. It is still standing, and is 
now used as a dormitory for white students. To this building 
the Indian children were transferred, and the hope was cher- 
ished that here, gathered together under the eye of the master 
and usher, they would enjoy better health and have better care 
taken of them ; for, hitherto boarded out in the town, "abund- 
ance of them" used to die, either through want of care, change 
of provision, or way of life, it happening, even in the case of 
those who were taught to read and write and lived out theii 
time at college, that they, on their return home "relapsed 
into their own savage customs and heathenish rules." A few 
of them would continue to live in Williamsburg, but they sel- 
dom raised themselves to a high level, either loitering away 
their time in idleness and mischief, or acting as servants to 
English families. Rev. Hugh Jones, from whom we get most 
of these facts, gives a description of the college building as it 
appeared in 1723, which is as follows: 

The latitude of the College at WiUiamsburgh, t« the best of mj 
observation, ia 37" 21' north. The front, which looks due east, is double, 
and is 136 Feet long. It is a lofty File of Brick Building adorn'd with 
ft Cupola. 

At the North End runs back a large wing, which U a handsome Hall, 
answerable to which the Chapel is to he built; and there is a spacious 

" On a brick near the south door is the inscription, " W. B., 1723." 
W. B. were the initials of Williani Byrd, rector of the Board. 



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College of William and Mary, 133 

FinzzfL on the Weit aide, from one wing to the other. It is approached 
by a good Walk, and a grand Entrance by Steps, with good Courts and 
Gardens about it, with a good House and Apartraents for the Indian 
Master and his Scholars, and Out-Housee; and a large Pasture en- 
closed like a ^ark with about 150 Acres of land adjoining, for occa- 
sional Uses. The Building is beautiful and commodious, being Hrat 
modelled by Sir Christopher Wren, adapted to the nature of the Coun- 
try by the Gentlemen there; and since it waa burnt down, it has been 
rebuilt, and nicely contrived, altered and adorned by the ingenious 
Direction of Governor Spotswood, and i^ not altogether unlike Chelsea 
tiospital. 

Mr, Jones further tells us that the college had a small 
library, enriched of late by the kind gifts of several gentle- 
men, but the sets of books were not all perfect nor of the best 
quality, The salary of the president of the college had been 
ii5o, but lately this had been reduced to £ioo. The salary of 
each professor was £80 per annum, but they got the benefit of 
a fee required of each scholar or student — 15 shillings in the 
grammar school and twenty in the philosophy school. Finally, 
we are told that the professors and students were lodged in 
the third story of the college, and received their board at ex- 
traordinary "cheap rates," the keeper of the table in 1723 being 
Mrs. Mary Stith.'" It would appear that at this time the col- 
lege had, in addition to the grammar and Indian masters, two 
professors of philosophy. 

The harmony which prevailed at first between Dr. Blair 
and Governor Spotswood was interrupted, when, like Andres, 
Spotswood assumed authority with reference to the clergy, 
which was disagreeable to Dr. Blair. His dictatorial conduct 
in other matters rendered him equally displeasing to the mem- 
bers of the council and of the house of burgesses. The veteran 
of Marlborough, like Andres, came out the loser, and in 1722 
he was removed from his ofifice by the government at home. 
The two succeeding governors took warning, and Dr. Blair 
had the hearty co-operation of Drysdale and Gooch in all his 
measures [or the advancement of the college. 

"A daughter of Colonel William Randolph, of Turkey Island, wife 
of Captain John Stith, of Charles City County, and mother of the his- 
torian, William Stith, president of the college in '1762-1753. 



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134 Williamsburg, 

In 1726 the general assembly gave the college £200 per 
annum £or 21 years out of the duty of one penny per gallon on 
liquors, which was a very great help. By 1729 the trustees 
had succeeded in founding all the departments in the college 
contemplated by the charter, as well as in digesting a set of 
statutes or rules for government. Therefore, pursuant to the 
charter, on February 27, the two surviving trustees, James 
Blair and Stephen Fouace signed a deed, transferring all the 
college realty and personalty to the president and masters or 
professors, who, thereupon, took charge. It was prepared by 
John Randolph, of Williamsburg, (afterwards Sir John Ran- 
dolph), and for his trouble the faculty voted him fifty guineas. 
The original instrument, which remained in the college library 
till its destruction by fire in 1859, was written upon fourteen 
beautifully illuminated sheets of parchment. All the formali- 
ties, however, were not completed until August 15, and the 
next day the president and masters met and qualified them- 
selves by subscribing their assent to the thirty-nine articles of 
the Church of England and taking the oath de ftdeli adminisSra- 
tione. 

The statutes," adopted by the trustees at the time of the 
transfer, were dated at London, June 24, 1727, and established 
three degrees of instruction. The scholar first entered the 
grammar school, where the Latin and Greek languages were 
taught, four years being assigned to the Latin and two to the 
Greek. They studied the same books as were by law and cus- 
tom used in England, but the master was permitted, with the 
president's consent to make criticisms on the grammar em- 
ployed. He was especially required to train the boys to speak 
the ancient languages by a free use of the colloquies of Cor- 
derius and Erasmus and other such books. On Saturdays and 
the eves of holidays, a sacred lesson was given out of either 
Castalio's Dialogues, or Buchanan's Paraphrase of Psalms. In 
1729 the master of the school was Joshua Fry, afterwards dis- 

"A copy of these statutes, printed by William Parks in 1736, is in 
the library of congress. 



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I 

SI? 

It" 
5 3 ? 



8 



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136 Williamsburg, 

tingnished as a colonel in the French and Indian war, and the 
usher was Rev. John Fox. The boys remained in the grammar 
school till tifteen years of age, when, on passing a satisfactory 
examination before the president and masters and ministers, 
skilled in the learned languages, they were promoted to the 
philosophical schools, where they were called students, and 
assumed the cap and gown. 

The salary of the master of the grammar school as now 

established was fixed at £80, with a fee of 15 shillings for each 

scholar. The usher received a salary of £50 and a fee of 5 

shillings for each scholar. But foundation scholars, that is, 

such as had scholarships, had no fees of any kind to pay, and 

also received their board free. 

' There were two masters in the philosophy school : first, the 

■ professor of moral philosophy, who taught "rhetoric, logic and 

ethics;" and the professor of natural philosophy and mathe- 

, matics, who taught "physicks, metaphysics and mathematics," 

The statutes required that, besides "disputation," the youth 
was to be exercised in declamation and themes on various sub- 
jects, though the particular line of instruction was left to the 
discretion of the president and the professors, who were ex- 
pected to consult the chancellor. It was expressly declared in 
the statutes that the professor of moral philosophy was not to 
be confined to "the logic and physics of Aristotle, which had 
reigned so long alone in the schools." The salary of each pro- 
fessor was £80 sterling, and a fee of 20 shillings a year from 
each scholar, except the scholarship students, who, as in the 
other schools, were taught gratis. 

According to the form and constitution of the famous in- 
stitutions in England, two years' study in the philosophy school 
was required for the degree of bachelor of arts, and four years 
for that of master of arts. 

In 1729 the professor of natural philosophy and mathe- 
matics was Alexander Irvine, who was the surveyor with Wil- 
liam Mayo, in running the North Carolina line, in 1728. The 
professor of moral philosophy, the same year, was William 
Dawson, of Aspatria, Cumberland County, England, a bachelor 
of arts of Queen's College, Oxford. 



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College o^ William and Marv. 137 

The third school . was the divinity school, in which there 
'. were two professors, one of whom taught the Hebrew tongu«, 
and expounded the Old and New Testaments, and the other 
explained "the common places of divinity and the controversies 
with heretics." As in the other schools of the college, the stu- 
dent was constantly exercised in debates, but on subjects of a 
theological character. The two professors in 1729 were Rev. 
Francis Fontaine, son of Rev. James Fontaine, and Rev. 
Bartholomew Yates — the latter being one of the most exem- 
plary ministers that ever lived in Virginia, They received each 
an annuity of £150, but no fees. 

For the Indians the college maintained an ordinary common 
school, in which the master, Richard Cocke, taught "reading, 
writing and vulgar arithmetic." The attendance on this school 
was augmented by white boys from the town, for whom the 
master charged 20 shillings a year each. His salary, outside 
of the fees, was £40 or £50 sterling, paid from the rents of the 
BrafFcrton estate in Yorkshire, in which, as has been related, 
the funds by Boyle for "pious and charitable uses" were 
invested. 

The president lectured on some theological subject once a 
week, but he had no regular classes. He was expected to have 
a watchful eye over the professors, students and revemies ; and 
when the board of visitors met, he was present, and voted at all 
their meetings and councils, llis salary was £150 sterling, with 
a house and garden suitable to the position. 

The president and six masters met, in the ordinary govern- 
ment of the college, whenever it was deemed expedient ; and at 
such times, all questions were determined by a major part, the 
side on which the president voted prevailing in case of a tie. 
To this meeting belonged the election of the usher of the gram- 
mar school, the bursar, library -keeper, janitor, cook, butler and 
gardener, and all other subordinate officers. According to 
the monastic views of colleges then prevailing, the privileges of 
a family were accorded to the president alone, and the viola- 
tion of this rule brought about much disturbance, as we shall 
see. 

The William and Mary system was but a colonial reproduc- 



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138 Williamsburg, 

tion of the higher education in Eng;Iand. Under the titl^ of 
"ethics," the professoi of moral philosophy at William) and 
Mary treated, from an early date, of the rights and duties of 
the state — the subject-matter of natural and crvri law. 

June 28, 1732, the south wing of the collie chapd, con- 
tracted to be built three years before by Henry Cary, was 
opened. Mr. President preached on Proverbs xxJi. 6 : "Train 
up a child in the way that he should go, and when he is old 
he will not depart from it." And on July 31, the foundations of 
the president's house, opposite to the Brafferton building, were 
laid by the sanve builder, the president, Mr. Dawson, Mr. Fry, 
Mr. Stith and Mr. Fox laying the first five bricks in order, one 
after another. The following, extracted from a letter of Rev. 
William Dawson to the bishop of London, dated William and 
Mary College, August 11, 1732, is descriptive of these events: 

I beg u> acquaint your Lordship that on June 28th, 1732, our new 
ehapet was opened with great solemnity. The Governor aBd his famil; 
were pleased to honour us with their Presence, and it being the assem- 
bly liiiip, the iiierabers of both Houses came in great numbers. An holy 
Joy appeared in every countenance. The Bta,ted hours of morning 
Prayer rre six in the Summer, seven in Winter and alwaya five in the 
evening. The same Time is set apart for Holidays, which, with all 
Humility and Difference, I think an Improvement upon the season 
observed in our College at Home. 

July 31. The foundations of a common brick "^ouse for the Presi- 
dent were laid opposite to BrafTetton. It is to be flnished for £650 
current money by Oct., 1733, according to the Brtieles of agreement. 
I'hese two buildings will appear at a small distance from the East front 
of the College, before which is a Garden planted with evergreens kept 
in very good order. The Hall and Chapel, joining to the west Front 
towards the Kitchen Garden, form two handsome wings. 

After one hundred and seventy-five years, the briclt house, 
erected in 1732, opposite to the Brafferton, is still the residence 
of the president of the college, and the chapel, begun in 1729,"* 
is still used for holy service. The "hall" is now divided into 
lecture rooms, and no longer used for assembly purposes. A 



"On a brick placed near the former entrance to the chapel at the 
tenth end la the inscription, "R. K. (Richard Eennon, rector), 1729." 



I 



D,Bi,z,db,Goo<^le 

I 



Mhh. .Tamkh Dlaib, 
Wifi' of I'l't'nidoiit Jmtu'H lllnir, uiiil <))iug]it< 
Uulom-1 Iti'llJHNiin llnrvixon. 



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I40 Williamsburg, 

commodious assembly hall is one of the needs of the college. 
Both chapel and president's house, like the Brafferton, were 
built in the Flemish bond. 

The same month John Randolph left Williamsburg for 
England. He bore with him a letter of instructions from the 
faculty in regard to the college finances, and a purchase of 
books for the BrafEerton. He was directed to wait upcm the 
lords of the treasury and the commissioners of the customs, 
to seek correction of the frauds which had sunk at least one- 
half the revenue from the exports of tobacco. He was also 
directed to obtain the advice of the bishop of London'" and the 
archbishop of Canterbury,'* as to the "properest books for our 
use with their best editions." To prevent duplication, ne was 
given two catalt^ues — one of the books which the college 
possessed already, and another of those intended by Dr, Blair 
for the college at his death. Dr. Dawson wrote to the bishop 
of London : 

Now, my lordship, if our humble Proposal to pay out part of the 
iJrafferton mone; wch is in Mr. Perry's hands for the Purpose of fur- 
niture and books meets with approbation and encouragement from 
your lordsliip, we have a very convenient room for a library over the 
Indian School. My Lord Burlington, I am informed, has promised to 
present l. with the Hon"* Mr. Boyle's Picture, which we intend to 
hang up in the aforesaid Library. His Philosophical and Theological 
works, together v/ith those which were written by his encouragement, 
may, perhaps, be thought no improper part of the collection. The Books 
published by our Eight Rev. Lord and Chancellor wd. do honour and 
service to the College. A complete set of the Classics is very much 
wanted. The President has bequeathed many good editions of the 
fathers, etc. But I humbly ask pardon tor giving your Lordship this 
delay, the whole being unanimously submitted to your wisdom and dis- 
cretion. 

Randolph returned in about a year, having successfully 
accomplished the mission, and wearing the honor of knight- 
hood as an evidence of his zeal. In 1734 the legislature gave 
the college, for the remainder of the term of twenty-one years, . 
the whole of the duty of one penny per gallon on liquors, pro- 

" Edmund Gibson, chancellor of the college, was bishop of London 
from 1T23-1748. "William Wake was archbishop from 1716-1737. 



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College of William and Marv. 141 

vided that some part thereof should be spent in books. A 
book, with the printed label, " The Gift of the General Assem- 
bly of Virginia in the year 1734," is still preserved in the col- 
lege library. 

In December, 1739, Williamsburg was visited by the 
founder of Methodism, Rev. George Whitefield, and the fol- 
lowing extract from his journal shows that he had no bad 
opinion of the place: 

Friday, Decemb. 14. [173B] Left Colonel W [hi ting's] 'b, about Seven 
in the Morning, pass'd through Gloucester Town, a very little Place. 
CroBBed a Ferry a Mile over. Dined at Yorlc, a Place somewhat larger, 
and reached Williamaburgh, the Metropolis of Virginia, by the Evening. 
The Crentleman before-nientloned waa bo kind as t« accompany ub; 
with him I discoursed much of the Things pertaining tn the Kingdom 
of Uod. 

Oh that the Lord may make him an Israelite indeed! 

Saturday, Dec. 15. Waited oiij and afterwarda (at hjs Invitation) 
dined with the tJovernor, who reociveJ me most courteously. Paid my 
Respects to the Rev. Mr. Blair the Commissary of Virginia. His Dis- 
course wa» Savoury, and auch as tended to the Use of edifying. He 
received me with Joy, asked me to preach, and Wished my Stay was to 
be longer. — Under Ood he has been chiefly instrumental in raising a 
beautiful College in Williamsburgh, ii. which is a Foundation tor about 
eight Scholars, a President, two Masters, and Protessors in the several 
Sciences. Here the Gentlemen of Virginia send their Children; and, aa 
far as I could learn by Lnquiry, they are near in the same Order, and 
under the same Regulation and Discipline, as in our Universities at 
Home. The present Maaters came from Oxford. Two of them I find 
were my contemporaries. I rejoice in seeing such a Place in America. 
May learning Christ be made the one End of all their Studies, and other 
Arts and Sciences only .ntroduced and pursued as aubaervient to that 
Excellency of Knowledge! 

Sunday, Dec. 10. Preached in the Morning (as I afterwards was 
informed) to the Satisfaction and FroAt of many. Several Gentlemen 
came from Yorlc, 14 Miks off, to hear, md were desirous of my going 
back to preach at their Town on the Morrow. — A large Audience (1 
found) might have been expected, could timely Notice haVc been given; 
but being in great Haste, and th^re being no Sermon customarily in 
the Afternoon, I dined with the Commissary, who entertained me and 
my Friends with great Civility, and left Williamsburgh in the After- 
noon, promising, it possible, to visit these parts again some Time in the 
Summer, But future Things belong to thee, Ood! 



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142 Williamsburg, 

From June 1740, to July, 1741, Dr. Blair, as president of 
the council, acted as chief executive in the absence of Sir 
William Gooch on the Carthegenian expedition. The end of a 
useful hfe occurred on April 18, 1743, just half a century after 
the college charter was obtained. Dr. Blair's remains were 
buried at Jamestown, where fragments of the tombstones of 
himself and wife, Sarah Harrison, placed there in 1752, by his 
nephew, Hon, John Blair, may still be seen. Governor William 
Gooch thus communicated Dr. Blair's death to the bishop of 
London: "The Commissary Blair died the i8th of the last 
month. . . The deceased had a rupture almost forty years, 
which, turning to a mortification, killed him, but such was his 
constitution that he struggled with the conqueror ten days 
after the Doctor had declared that he could not live ten hours. 
He has left his books and £300 to the college, and to his 
nephew and his children near £10,000 besides other small 
legacies," 

From the time of the transfer to Dr. Blair's death, the 
following changes occurred in the faculty: Soon after thai 
event, Mr. Cocke died or resigned, and, thereupon, Rev. Johh 
Fox was made master of the Indian school. In 1732 Alexander 
Irvine, who died that year, was succeeded by Joshua Fry as 
professor of natural philosophy, and mathematics, whereupon 
William Stith was elected to the vacancy thereby created in the 
grammar school. In 1737 Rev. John Fox resigned his office of 
master of the Indian school and Rev. Robert Barret took his 
place; white Thos. Dawson, brother of Prof. William Dawson, 
was made usher of the grammar school. The same year Joshua 
Fry resigned the mathematical chair, and John Graeme, who 
had been in the service of Alexander Spotswood, was elected to 
fill the vacancy. In March, 1738, Edward Ford was elected 
master of the grammar school, and Rev. Thomas Dawson 
master of the Indian school. Finally, in 1742, Rev. Thomas 
Robinson was made master of the grammar school. Most, if 
not all of these gentlemen were bachelors of arts of Oxford 
University. 

William Dawson, D, D., who had spent nine years at Ox- 
ford, and had served at William and Mary as professor of- 



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College of William and Mary, 143 

moral philosophy since 1729, succeeded Dr. Blair in his officn 
as president of the college, commissary to the bishop of Lon- 
don, and member of the governor's council. His brother, Rev. 
Thomas Dawson, who had read prayers for Dr. Blair in his 
infirm state, was elected to succeed him as rector of Uruton 
church. 

Three years later the capitol at the other end of Duke of 
Gloucester street, burned down, and for several years the col- 
lege furnished quarters to the homeless legislature and govern- 
ment ofiicials. . 

The spirit of dissent, under the influence of Samuel Davies, 
was now become general, but Dawson and Davies were always 
excellent friends, and the former, at the council board, opposed 
any persecution. 

By the charter, the college had the right to appoint all the 
county surveyors, and in 1749 George Washington received the 
appointment for Fairfax County. The original bond executed 
by Washington for the faithful performance of his duties pro- 
vided that he should pay to the college treasurer one-sixth part 
of all his "fees and profits for surveying." 

In 1744 William Parks published another edition of the 
statutes, but I have never seen a copy of this issue. 

The following changes occurred in the faculty during Dr. 
Dawson's term as president: April 10, 1744, Rev. Roscoc Cole 
was elected usher of the grammar school in the place of Wil- 
liam Yates resigned. March 28, 1747, Roscoe Cole resigned, 
and John Dixon took his place. November 20, 1744, William 
Preston, a master of arts of Oxford, qualified as professor of 
moral philosophy, and, in 1749, Richard Graham, another Ox- 
ford graduate, succeeded John Graeme as professor of natural 
philosophy and mathematics. 

Dr. Dawson died July 20, 1752, and was succeeded as presi- 
dent of the college by his brother-in-law, Rev, William Stith, 
A. M., the distinguished historian, 

Mr. Stith was a native of Virginia, and was educated first 
in the grammar school of the college and later at Oxford Uni- 
versity. As he had warmly opposed Governor Dinwiddle when 
he levied a pistole for land grants, that magistrate threw his 



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144 Williamsburg, 

influence against his appointment as commissary, and Rev. 
Thomas Dawson received that place. 

Stith's administration was a very brief one, and was noted 
chiefly for the meeting of the clergy that occurred in the col- 
lege in 1754. Commissary Thomas Dawson was allowed "the 
use of the hail and the great room" for the purpose. The prin- 
cipal result of the meeting was to establish a fund for providing 
for the widows and orphans of deceased clergymen. 

In 1754 the faculty consisted of Rev. William Stith, presi- 
dent; Rev. Thomas Dawson, master of the-Jndian school: Rev. 
Thomas Robinson, master of the grammar school ; William 
Preston, professor of moral philosophy ; Rev. Richard Graham, 
professor of natural philosophy ; and Rev. John Camm, pro- 
fessor of divinity. There were 75 scholars and students board- 
I ing in college, of whom eight were Indians. Probably forty 
more students resided in town, which would make the total 
attendance about 115. Board was £13 per session, and eight 
of the more wealthy scholars had negro boys to wait on them ; 
fifteen boys had scholarships. 

Mr. Stith died September 19, 1755, and he was succeeded 
by Commissary Rev. Thomas Dawson, whose salary as presi- 
dent was raised from £150 sterling to i200 sterling. In him the 
ofiRces of president, commissary, member of the council and 
rector of Bruton church were once more united. Rev. 
Emanuel Jones, of Gloucester County, Virginia, was elected 
master of the Indian school, to take the place of President 
Thomas Dawfson. Mr. Dawfson's term was rife with dissensions 
and discontent ; for there was not only war with France, but 
fierce wranglings in the colony, church and college. 

The domestic troubles began with an act of assembly in 
1755, which made the salaries of the preachers payable in 
money at two pennies per pound of their rate in tobacco. The 
act bore hard upon the ministers, and Governor Dinwiddie was 
asked to veto it, but declined, though saying it was unjust and 
illegal. "What can I do? If I refuse to approve it, I shall 
have the People on my back." Several of the clergy of the 
college — Camm, Preston, Robinson and Graham — then tried to 
get Mr. Dawson to call a convention of the brethren, but he 



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146 Williamsburg, 

viewed the matter as the governor did, and declined. As a 
consequence, there was much bitter talk, and the board of 
visitors, sympathizing with President Dawson, removed Camm, 
Robinson and Graham from their offices, while Preston, to 
prevent a like treatment, returned to England in the summer 
of 1757. 

In 1758 another "Two Penny Act" was passed, and again 
a deputation of clergymen went to the palace, but Lieutenant- 
Governor Fauquier, who was now in office, was even more 
unsatisfactory than Dinwiddie. He replied that the question 
with him was not whether the law was "just or unjust, con- 
trary or not contrary to his instructions, but whether the people 
wanted it." He sided with the assembly ; and the clergy, seeing 
that no justice could be had in Virginia, sent John Camm to 
England to present their cause to the king's privy council. He 
remained there eighteen months, and returned in 1760 with a 
disallowance of the act; but, wearied by his long voyage at 
sea, he did not come at once to Williamsburg, but staid at 
Hampton to rest himself. When, after a week, with his two 
friends. Rev. Thomas Warrington and Rev. William Robin- 
son, Camm presented himself at the palace, and handed 
Fauquier the instructions of the privy council, the following 
colloquy ensued : 

Oovemor: A'are these papers deliver'd to you openl Oamm: Yes, 
Sir. Qovemor: In whose posaeaaion have they been in all this Wmel 
Camm: In aine. Sir. Qovemor: I shall writ* to the Board of Trade, 
and Lords of the Council, to enquire about these things. Camm: Your 
Honor may do aa you please. Oovernor; I am well acquainted with the 
caluinniea you have thrown on me. Oamm: I am willing to face your 
Honor's Informers. Governor: I am above board and quarrel with 
people to their face. Camm: Your Honor never quarrelled with me to 
my face before, and I do not come to quarrel with your Honor now. 
liovernor: You thought proper to visit Mr. Warrington before you 
waited on me. Camm: But I escaped no belter vreatment from you. 
(iovernor: Yoa are very ignorant or very impudent, take which alter- 
native you please. You arc a foolish Negotiator; end I order you never 
to enter my doors again. We were going to icithdrau). Oovemor: 
Stay— Westmore (speaking to one of his white servanta), call my 
negroes, call all my negroes." Two negro men appeared. Then he called 
lor a negro boy, who, likewise, eame. "Here," says he, look at him; 



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College oi' William and Mary. 147 

look at him (pointing at Mr. Camm), that you Diay know him i^ajn. 

U ever he should come to ask for me, suffer him not to enter m^ doors." 

According to Mr. Robinson, who wrote this account, the 
governor appeared "by word and gesture" in a violent passion, 
.while Mr. Canim bore his treatment with the greatest calmness 
and patience. To the disappointment of the clergy, Fauquier 
construed the order to mean a repeal of the " Two Penny Act," 
not ab initio, but from the date of the order; and to make 
matters worse, when, soon after, they made application to 
Commissary Dawson for a meeting of the clergy, he again 
refused. 

The collefje at this time was in a very sad condition. By 
the removal of the professors, the college exercises were prac- 
tically suspended, and several parents sent their children to the 
new colleg:e at Philadelphia. The two sides indulged in mutual 
recrimination, and among the charges laid at the door of Rev. 
William Preston and Rev. Thomas Robinson was the fact of 
their marrying and keeping, "contrary to all rules of seats of 
learning, their wives, children and servants in college, which 
occasioned much confusion and disturbance." On the other 
hand, it was alleged by William Robinson, Camm's friend, that 
Commissary Dawson was a mere tool of the governor, unwill- 
ing to speak out for fear of losing his salary. According to 
him, Dawson was often intoxicated, a fact which, to avoid 
the disagreeable proof of, he confessed before the college board, 
at which time he had the honor of having an excuse made for 
him by his friend, Governor I-'auquier, who said that it was 
no wonder he had resorted to drink, since he had been teased 
to desperation by persons of his own cloth. 

In 1758 William Hunter published another issue of the 
statutes of the college, a copy of which is preserved in the 
Lenox Library. The chief changes made were in the salaries. 
Thus, the president was given i200 instead of fi50, and the 
grammar master £150, instead of f8o, annually. The removed 
professors took an appeal to England, and, in the meantime, in 
the early part of 1758, Rev. Mr. Goronwy Owen was elected 
by the visitors, master of the grammar school, and Mr. Wil- 
liam Small assumed the duties of professor of natural philoso- 



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LIST OF STUDENTS, SCHOLARS, AND THEIR NEGRO BOYS, 
Boarding in College in 1754. (From the Bursar's Book.) 



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ISO Williamsburg, 

phy and mathematics. Mr. Owen, who was a graduate of 
Jesus College, Oxford, and "premier poet" of Wales, was a 
man of great learning, but he did not remain long. The cause 
of his resignation is attributed, by his biographer, to over- 
fondness for the wine cup, which induced him and Mr. Rowe 
to lead the scholars in a row with the boys of the town." This 
conduct seems to have so exasperated the visitors that, on 
August 14, 1760, they entered an order that Mr. Rowe "should 
remove himself and his effects at once from the college." Mr. 
Owen, by resignation, probably saved himself from a similar 
fate, and he was soon afterwards nominated by Governor 
Fauquier, minister to St. Andrews parish, in Brunswick, one of 
the frontier counties. It is probably true, however, that the 
Two Penny Act had something to do with the severance of his 
relations with the college, as we are told that the election of 
Rev. William Webb, as successor of Mr. Owen, was owing to 
his lack of sympathy with the clergy on that question. In June, 
1761, Mr. Richard Graham, who had been removed from the 
chair of natural philosophy and mathematics in 1758, was 
elected to fill the vacancy in the chair of moral philosophy, and 
he qualified accordingly, Mr. Andrew Burnaby having declined 
the position. 

In 1759 the general assembly added to the revenue of the 
college by a tax on peddlers. 

Mr. Dawson died in December, 1761, and his obituary in the 
Maryland Gazette sounds very much like the work of his 
friend, Fauquier. After a eulogy upon his "moderation, meek- 
ness, forgiveness and long-suffering/' it goes on to say that "it 
is much to be feared he fell a Victim to the repeated marks of 
Ingratitude and Malice which he, unhappy man, frequently ex- 
perienced in his passage through this state of Probation." 

" In a letter written by Philip Ludwell from London, November 8, 
1T60, occurs the following: "I hear many diEsgreeable things from 
Virginia aa the battle of the scholars, the regiments laying down 
their arms, etc., but none v;ith more concern than that the com'y was 
presented by the grand jury for drunkenness. How sad a wound does 
Keligion. receive, like Ciesar, from those who by all Tyes are bound to' 
be her best frienda and supporters." 



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A pAOfi raoM THE Factolty Book, 
Showing tlie Diploma awarded to lienjamin Frnnklin. 



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A Page from the Facultt Book, 

Showing Autograph t>( Rev. Thomas Dawson. 



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College of William and Mary. 153 

Despite, however, turmoils and dissensions, the college 
flourished and did a great work. Among the professors, Wil- 
liam Small, professor of natural philosophy and mathematics, 
was perhaps the most original genius. After the removal of Mr, 
Rowe he also discharged the duties of the moral philosophy for 
a year, and he made great departure from the practice univer- 
sally prevalent at that day of memory lessons, by being the 
first professor at Willfam and Mary, and, it is believed, the first 
in the United States, to adopt the modern lecture system. •' 
While we have no exact details of the methods of instruction 
pursued by him, the enthusiastic language of Jefferson and 
John Page leaves no room to doubt that his instruction was 
broad and varied. The first says of him that "he fixed my des- 
tinies in life," and the other calls him "the illustrious professor 
of mathematics, afterwards well known as the great Dr. Small, 
of Birmingham, the darling friend of Darwin." His physical 
apparatus, which he selected for the college, was perhaps the 
best and most complete of any in the colonies. 

It may be said that law and natural science absorbed the 
attention of the founders of the American commonwealths. As 
the controversy with the British crown, being one of strict 
legal right, produced an unprecedented popular demand for 
legal knowledge, so the free spirit engendered by the study of 
the natural sciences made men restless under the old order 
of things in church and Stale. Virginia, under Jefferson and 
Small, clearly took the lead along both lines. In 1762 Dr. Small 
went hack to England, where he aided James Watt in his ex- 
periments with the steam engine, and died at Birmingham in 
the year 1775. Among the other students, besides Jefferson 
and Page, who enjoyed the influence of Small, were Dabney 
Carr, Walter Jones, John Walker, James McClurg, Robert 
Spotswood, Champion Travis, Edmund Pendleton, Jr., and 
William Fleming. 

After the death of Mr. Dawson, the board appointed Wil- 
liam Yates, son of the pious and godly Bartholomew Yates, 
president; and the office of commissary went to Rev, William 
Robinson. Mr. Yates was educated at the college, where he 



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154 Williamsburg, 

was usher of the grammar school in 1744^ and afterwards min- 
ister of Ware pariih in Gloucester County and teacher of a 
celebrated school in that county. The fight oyer tfie "Two 
Penny Act" went on; and in 1763 Mr. Canun succeeded in 
obtaining an order from the privy council for the reinstatement 
of the deprived professors, Richard Graham and himself, to 
the chairs from which they had been removed by the board in 
1757. Mr. Graham resumed the duties of professor of natural 
philosophy and Mr. Camm those of professor of divinity. 
Suits were brought by several of the ministers against the ves- 
tries for the losses incurred in their salaries, and in 1763 Rev. 
Mr, Maury's suit came up for trial in the county court of 
Hanover. The clergy had much the best of the argument, but 
the people were represented by Patrick Henry, who looked to 
the principle lying at the bottom of things, which was that a 
church establishment was morally wrong. Henry's speech was 
an ad captandum affair, full of glittering generalities, but 
eloquent and forcible because addressed to the fears and in- 
terests of the people. He praised the "Two Penny Act" as 
salutary, and went so far as to say that the king, by disallowing 
such a law, became a tyrant, instead of father of the people, 
and that his order in council, being against right, was without 
force or validity. Several persons cried out "treason, treason," 
but the jury brought in a verdict of one penny damages. The 
time for revolution and independence was fully come, and 
there was no resisting it. 

Rev. William Yates died in 1764, and there was a warm 
contest between Richard Graham, the professor of natural philo- 
sophy, and James Horrocks, the young master of the grammar 
school, for the vacant presidency. By virtue of his seniority 
and experience, the office, under ordinary circumstances, would 
have gone to Graham, but the visitors had already experienced 
considerable trouble with him. They, therefore, preferred Hor- 
rocks, who, in a short time after his election, contrived to heap 
upon himself, in addition, the high offices both of commissary 
and of a member of the council of state. He was president seven 
years, during which disputes ran as high as ever in the college. 



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CODNTY SUBVEYOH'a BOND. 



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156 Williamsburg, 

The visitors insisted upon their right to forbid the professors 
from taking charge of churches in the vicinity, and to remove 
them when necessary, and upon a general direct control over 
the finances. These powers the professors denied as contrary 
to the authority of the charter, and joined in a memorial to 
the chancellor, the bishop of London, on the subject. 

In 1764 John Blair, Jr., the bursar of the college, made a 
report on the finances for the previous ten years, by which it 
appeared that the total average annual receipts of the college 
in current money, were ^1,936, 14s. 6Jd., equal probably to 
$30,000 in present values. The total expenditures were ^1,593, 
3s. lo^d. The BraflFerton rents yielded in current money an- 
nually £121, 12s., and the greatest single source of income en- 
joyed by the college was the tax on liquors, which produced 
communibus annis, £817. 

In 1769 Mr. Camm, professor of divinity, and Mr. Josiah 
Johnson, master of the grammar school, married, and took up 
their residence in Williamsburg. Thereupon, the visitors 
threatened to remove them both, but finally compromised by 
fulminating a decree tliat "all professors and masters hereafter 
to be appointed be constantly resident in y* college, and upon 
the marriage of such professors or masters that his professor- 
ship he immediately vacated," 

The courtship of Parson Camm is a counterpart of that 
of John Alden in New England history, and is one of the 
choicest incidents in the college annals. The romance of his 
life came to him when he had attained the mature age of fifty- 
one, in the following manner: 

Among Camm's parishioners, baptized by him in his early 
rectorship of York Hampton parish, was Miss Betsy Hansford, 
a relation of Hansford, the rebel and martyr of Bacon's day. A 
young friend, who had wooed Miss Betsy without success, per- 
suaded the worthy parson to aid him with his eloquence. He 
called upon her, and among other authorities quoted the Bible, 
which enjoined matrimony as one of the duties of life. Hii 
persuasions had no effect, however, and the young lady finally 
suggested that, if the parst^n would go home and look at 



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AcrOUNT IF TllOMAH JCKFRBHON, 

In the Book of the Bursar, John Blair, Jr. 



'Mt^LM/iU */58y?t, 



AuTOflRAi'ii OF Phebidekt William Vates. 



'mebidbnt William 
AirrooRAPii of Phof. Kiciiard Qhaham. 



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15** Williamsburg, 

2 Samuel xii. 7, he might be able to divine the reason for her 
refusal. Mr. Camm went home and "searched the scriptures," 
when he found these significant words staring him in the face: 
"And Nathan said to David, thou art the man." The sequel 
is told in an item of the Virginia Gazette announcing the mar- 
riage of Rev. John Camm and Miss Betsy Hansford. 

f In 1770 Lord Botetourt presented to the college funds 

sufficient to establish two gold medals, to be given respectively 

I to the best scholar in the classics and the best in philosophy." 
The following, taken from the bursar's books, represents 
the pay-roll of the institution in 1770, but the master of the 
grammar school and the two philosophy professors also re- 
ceived considerable sums from fees. The salaries, moreover, 
were largely augmented by engagements on the part of the pro- 
fessors, as ministers in the neighboring parishes, and President 
Horrocks, who was commissary, member of the council and 
rector of Bruton Church, as well as president, received alto- 
gether isgo — equivalent, probably, to $10,000. 

AdcouNT OF Salaries in 1770 in Sterling Money, 

President, (Rev. James Horrocks), £200 

Two professors of divmity, (Rev. John Camm and Rev. 

John Dixon), one hundred pounds apiece, 200 

Professor of moral philosophy, (Rev. Samuel Henley), . 100 
Professor of natural philosophy, (Rev. Thos. Gwatkin), 100 
Professor of humanity or master of the grammar school, 

(Rev. Josiah Johnson), 150 

First usher, (James Emmerson) 75 

Second usher, (James Marshall), 4° 

Master of the Indian school, (Emmanuel Jones), from 

the Brafferlon fund 5° 

Master of the Indian school, (Emmanuel Jones), from 

the college fund, 25 

"See William and Mary College Quarterly Hist. Mag., IV., 263. 
Eight of these medals \/ere awarded, but they stopped with the Revo- 
lution, itiey were the first collegiate prizes offered in the United 
States. The dies from which they were struck are still the property of 
the College. 



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TnOMAH jECTEnRON, 

PresiJent of the Uniteil BtttteB, 
SImlpiil in 17110-17(12. 



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r6o Williamsburg, 

Bursar, (John Blair, Jr.,), 50 

Gardener, (James Nicholson), 30 

Housekeeper, (Margaret Garrett), 30 

Clerk of the visitation, (Matthew Davenport), ........ 20 

Librarian, (Emmanuel Jones) 10 

Oerk to the society, (faculty). Emmanuel Jones, , . .~. , . 10 

Janitor, (James Nicholson) 5 

Surveyor of woodcutters, (James Nicholson) 5 

Writing master, (Matthew Davenport), 30 

Two students lately created, (Edmund Randolph and 

William Leigh) .' 30 

Chaplain, (the professors in turn), 50 



£1,210 



The number of scholars and students boarding in college 
this year (1770) was 85, which would seem to indicate a total 
attendance of about 120, counting the boarders in town. There 
were probably about 70 scholars in the grammar and Indian 
schools and fifty students in the philosophy school. 

Hitherto, a preliminary training in Latin and Greek in the 
grammar school had been deemed essential to study in the 
philosophy school, but in 1770 the visitors made a great de- 
parture by authorizing, against the protest of the faculty, "All 
such youth, whether resident in or out of the College, who 
have acquired a competent knowledge of common or vulgar 
Arithmetic, & whose Parents or Guardians may desire it, be 
received into the Mathematical school." 

In 1771 President Horrocks started a new upheaval by 
calling a convention of the clergy to consider the question of an 
American episcopate ; and it was believed by some that Hor- 
rocks' ambition was for himself to wear the mitre. Only 
ten of the clergy, however, responded to the call, and of these, 
two, Rev. Thomas Gwatkin, professor of natural philosophy, 
qnd Rev. Samuel Henley, professor of moral philosophy, so 
vigorously opposed the proposition as to receive the thanks of 
*he assembly. Mr. Horrocks shortly afterwards sailed to Eng- 
land with his wife, leaving John Camm to represent him as 



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BOTETOUBT MbdAL. 




AUTOOBAFH OF PROFEBSOB SAMUEL IIENLEY. 



AuTOflBAPII OF PBBBIORNT J. HoSBOCKS- 



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i62 Williamsburg, 

president of the college. Rev. William Willie as commissary, 
and Rev. Mr. Henley as rector of Bruton parish. He died on 
the way over, however, at Oporto, Portugal, March 27, 1772, 
and John Canim succeeded him in all the above-named offices 
except the last. 

Camm was the last of the colonial presidents of William 
and Mary, and he was born in 1718. His father was Thomas 
Camm, of Hornsea, England. He matriculated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge University, June 6, 1738, and on August 24, 
1749, qualified as professor of divinity at William and Mary; 
and about the same time he was elected minister of York- 
Hampton parish. He had been, as we have seen, a staunch 
champion of the rights of the clergy, and, despite the popular 
verdict in Hanover, took the question up, in his own case, on 
appeal to the privy council, but at the time this body did not 
wish to offend the colonists and dismissed the case in 1767, 
under pretence that the action had been laid wrong. Still un- 
conquered, Camm proposed, against the advice of Commissary 
Horrocks, to appeal another case to England so as to compel 
a decision, but nothing came out of it. Though he certainly 
never bowed to the "powers that be," he appears, on the 
death of Horrocks, to have succeeded to the presidency of 
the college without trouble or opposition. 

In April, 1773, died Rev. Josiah Johnson, master of the 
grammar school, and he was succeeded by Rev, Thomas Gwat- 
kin, while Rev. James Madison, a student of the college, to 
whom the Botetourt medal for classical learning had been 
awarded in May, 1772, assumed the chair of natural philosophy 
and mathematics. 

The quarrel between the mother country and the colonies 
became acute, and all sorts of rumors flew about. Mr, Camm, 
as a councillor, was a great friend of Lord Dunmore, the gov- 
ernor, and sympathized with him in his troubles. It being 
reported to the faculty that Lord Dunmore intended to resign 
his seat in the board of visitors, he and Rev. Thomas Gwatkin 
were sent to the palace "humbly to request that he will continue 
to be a visitor and governor of the college." The removal of 



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1'rominknt Alumni, 

London Carter. 

Archibald Cury. Jolm ]>iige, 



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164 Williamsburg, 

the gunpowder from the magazine plunged the college into 
great excitement ; and the students made haste to arm them- 
selves, and the usher, James Innis, who raised a military com- 
pany in Williamsburg, was greatly condemned by Camm and 
the rest of the faculty for inattention to duty. 

In May, 1775, Henley and Madison obtained leave and 
sailed for England, and in June, Professor Gwatkin, as chaplain 
to Lady Dunmore, shared her fortunes, and departed also. The 
only one of them who probably had any idea of returning was 
Madison, who went to England for ordination as minister. 
Henley became afterwards greatly celebrated as the translator 
of Beckford's remarkable romance, called Vathek. In Septem- 
ber James Innis, who had been absent three months, on account 
of military engagements, was removed from his position as 
usher by President Camm and the senior professor, Emmanuel 
Jones, who were all the professors then at college. In Novem- 
ber Rev. John Bracken, minister of the church in Williamsburg, 
qualified as master of the grammar school ; and not long after 
Mr. Madison returned from England (where he had been ad- 
mitted to holy orders), and resumed his duties as professor of 
natural philosophy and mathematics. 



The College Seal. 



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Jaues MoNHOi:, 

President of the United St.<.teB. 
Student in 1TT5. 



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Williamsburg, 



After Ike American Rei'ohition. 

December 5, 1776, the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the first in- 
tercollegiate fraternity in the United States, organized, at the 
Raleigh Tavernjjy electing as president John Heath, a student 
from Northumberland County, afterwards a member of con- 
gress, and as secretary, Thomas Smith, of Gloucester County, 
afterwards a member of the legislature, and of the State con- 
vention of 1788. March 12, 1779, Captain John Marshal!, then 
a student of the college, became a member, and_'about the same 
time Elisha Parmaiee, a student from Connecticut, was granted 
permission to establish chapters at Harvard and Yale. 

In the spring of 1777 the Tory sympathies of President 
Camm, Emmanuel Jones and John Dixon brought them into 
difficulty with the visitors, as a result of which the two latter 
resigned, and Mr. Camm, denying the authority of the board, 
was displaced. He retired to his country seat at the half-way 
house in York County, and lived there till 1779, when he died. 
He is still represented by descendants of great respectability 
and influence in Virginia. 

A new order of things came in with James Madison, who 
was elected Camm's successor. He was the son of John Madi- 
son, clerk of Augusta County, and was second cousin of the 
illustrious president of the United States of the same name. 
He went first to an academy in Maryland, and in 1768 entered 
at William and Mary College, where he graduated in 1772, re- 
ceiving the Botetourt medal for distinction in the classics. In 
1773 he was chosen professor of natural philosophy and mathe- 
matics, and in the spring of 1775 went to England for ordina- 
tion. After ordination he remained there till the latter part of 
1776, studying under Thomas Cavallo, a distinguished lecturer 
on natural science. Madison was as warm a republican as 
Camm was a loyalist, and it is said of him that in his sermons 
he would never speak of heaven as a kingdom, but as that 



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.Toh:t ^fARsnALL. 

Cliief JiiHliit; uf llie UnJIrd Rtateii. 

Student in 1770. 



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i68 Williamsburg, 

"great republic where there was no distinction of rank, and 
where all men were free and equal." 

When, in the spring of 1777, he was elected president, he 
was only 28 years of age, and so the statute requiring the in- 
cumbent to be not less than 30 years, had to be suspended. For 
two years the faculty consisted of President Madison, Robert 
Andrews and John Bracken, who shared all the chairs between 
them. The students, who averaged annually about 40 young 
men, were enlisted in a company, of which Madison was cap- 
tain,*' Nevertheless, Madison succeeded admirably in sus- 
taining the interests of the college, for the exercises of the 
college were suspended only for a few months during the Revo- 
lution — a short time before and a short time after the siege of 
Yorktown. 

In June, 1781, Lord Comwallis arrived with his army in 
Williamsburg, and made the president's house his headquarters. 
And shortly after his surrender in October, the house was 
occupied by the French and much damaged by a fire, but at 
once repaired at the expense of the French army. 

In the meantime, Mr. Jefferson, as one of the committee 
of revisers, prepared for the new commonwealth a scheme of 
general education, comprising first elementary schools, secondly 
colleges for a middle degree of instruction, and thirdly, a 
university for teaching tiie sciences "generally and in their 
highest degree." By a bill especially designed to meet the last 
object, he amended the charter of William and Mary and en- 
larged its sphere of operations. 

The bill substituted more certain revenues for its support, 
changed the number of visitors from eighteen to five, and in- 
stead of the "president and six professors" provided for eight, 
one of whom should also be appointed president. The report 
of the revisers, although submitted to the assembly in 1779, was 
not printed until 1796, when only the bill relating to public 
schools was enacted into law, but it proved ineffective as 
amended. 

"The officers of the compftny were: James Madison, captain; Qran- 
rille Smith, first lieutenant; Williatti Nelson, Jr., second lieutenant, 
And Daniel Fitzhugh, ensign. 



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A Paob fbou the Phi Bkta Kappa Society Becobds, 

Signed by the President, WilliaJn Short, afterwards minister to Holland, 
and showing the grant of a, charter to Yale University. 



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1/0 Williamsburg, 

But while Jefferson s bill for amending the charter of Wil- 
liam and Mary was not passed, he was chosen a member of the 
board of visitors of the college and efifected during his stay in 
Williamsburg, as governor, most important changes in its 
curriculum. In connection with President Madison he induced 
the visitors on December 4, 1779, to abolish the grammar school 
and the two divinity schools, and in their places to introduce 
schools of modern languages, of municipal law, and of medicine. 
By this arrangement the college was made a university, the 
first to be organized in the United States; and it became also 
the first to have a chair of modern languages and a chair of 
municipal law, while its chair of medicine was only second in 
time to that of the college of Philadelphia. The faculty was 
cornposed of "James Madison, D. D., president and professor 
of natural philosophy and mathematics ; George Wythe, LL. D., 
professor of law and police; James McClurg, professor of 
anatomy and medicine; and Robert Andrews, A. M., professor 
of moral philosophy, the law of nature and nations, and of the 
fine arts ; and Charles Bellini, professor of modern languages." 

This was a small faculty, but each of the members was a 
host in himself. President Madison was a fine lecturer, and 
his talents were shown to their full advantage, when in 1784 
he was relieved of the duty of teaching mathematics and made 
professor of moral philosophy, international law, etc, in addi- 
tion to natural philosophy, which he always retained. We are 
told that he was the first to introduce into the college a regular 
system of lectures on political economy ; and in the department 
of natural philosophy he excelled, his enthusiasm throwing a 
peculiar charm over his lectures. There is reason to believe 
that Adam Smith's great work, Inquiry into the Nature and 
Sources of the Wealth of Nations, and Vattell's Law of Nations 
were taught at William and Mary earlier than at any other col- 
lege in the United States. Presid'ent Madison was indefatigable 
in his lectures, and when in good health, is known to have been 
engaged in his lecture-room from four to six hours a day. 

George Wythe, the professor of law had, like Madison, been 
a student at the college, and for thirty-five years had held the 



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Phominent AHIMNI. 
1. John J. Ciitlemlen. 2. Jo^epli V. CohM. 3 VVilliiiin T. Dui-iy. 



D,gl,zedbyGOO<^le 



172 Williamsburg, 

first place at the bar of the State, Mr. Jefferson called him 
"the pride of the institution," and "one of the greatest men of 
the age, always distingtiished by the most spotless virtue." He 
gave lectures regularly on municipal and constitutional law, 
and in 1780 instituted a system of moot courts and moot legis- 
latures, by which he trained the forty young men under his 
care in public speaking and parliamentary procedure. He made 
use of the deserted capitol, at the other end of the town, for 
this purpose, and he and the other professors would sit as 
judges. Being elected, in 1789, sole chancellor of Virginia, 
he resigned and moved, in 1791, to Richmond, and was suc- 
ceeded by St, George Tucker, a judge of the general court, and 
whose "Commentaries on Blackstone" was the first American 
text-book on the law."" 

James McClurg, the professor of medicine, had also been a 
student of the college, and had accomplished his medical edu- 
cation at the university of Edinburgh and on the continent of 
Europe. By his poem on "The Belles of Williamsburg," he 
acquired a literary reputation in addition to his reputation as 
a physician of eminence. 

Robert Andrews, the professor of moral philosophy till 
1784 and then the professor of mathematics, was a graduate 
of the college of Philadelphia and very active and useful. His 
mathematical ability was thought so considerable that he served 
with President Madison on the commission to define the 
boundary line of Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

In the modern languages, French, Italian, Spanish and 
German were taught, and the professor was Charles Bellini, 
an Italian, who in 1773 came to Albemarle County, as I 
believe, with Philip Mazzei, to introduce the culture of the 
grape, the olive and other fruits of Italy, His abilities have 
' been favorably commented upon by Mr, Jefferson, and the 
[fact of his connection with the college so early as 1779 be- 
comes more interesting when we learn that as late as 1814 
George Ticknor could find in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 

"William and Mary College Quarterly, VI., 182; IX., 80, 



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1 74 Williamsburg, 

neither a good teacher of German, nor a German dictionary, nor 
even a German book, either in town or college. 

In 1788 Mr. Jefferson wrote as follows: "Williamsburg 
is a remarkably healthy situation, reasonably cheap and affords 
very genteel society. I know no place in the world, while the 
present professors remain, where I would so soon place a son." 

In 1791 Judge John Coalter, who was a student under Mr. 
Wythe, thus also expressed his opinion: "I scarcely know a 
place more pleasing than Williamsburg, which may justly re- 
ceive the title (which Homer gives Greece), 'the land of lovely 
dames,' for here may be found beauty in perfection, and not 
only beaiity, but sociability in the ladies," 

The Revolution disestablished religion in Virginia, and 
though Mr. Madison, in 1790, was made first bishop of the 
Episcopal church, the college never again had an official con- 
nection with religion, although the visitors, faculty and 
students were principally Episcopalians. 

As another result of the Revolution, the college lost the use 
of the Brafferton fund. Eeilby Porteus, bishop of London, 
whose father, Robert Porteus, was born and lived most of his 
life in Virginia, brought suit, and the fund was diverted to 
the education of negroes in the West Indies. The Indian 
school was discontinued, and the building is now used as a 
dormitory. 

As far as material aspects were concerned, the American 
Revolution was very unfavorable to the college. It lost in 
many ways — first, by removal of the capital to Richmond, 
which depreciated the importance of the college, the discon- 
tinuance of all the State laws for its support, and the diversion 
by the English courts of the Boyle fund. Three years after the 
peace, its active available capital amounted to only $2,503.66, 
Fortunately, it still possessed the extensive lands granted by 
the crown, which brought considerable rent, and its real estate 
was increased in 1784 by the public lands in and around Wil- 
liamsburg, voted to the college by the general assembly. 

I have noticed the introduction of the lecture system by Dr. 
William Small, and now it was recognized in the faculty 



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College or William and Mahy. 175 

minutes as the corner-stone of the new regime. "December 29, 
1779. Resolved that the lectures in the different schools shall 
commence for the ensuing year on the 17th of January." 

Another principle was that of election by the students > 
among the branches of study. It has been observed that in 
1770 the student was permitted by the visitors to depart from 
the established order to the extent of entering the mathematical 
school without the preliminary training in Latin and Greek 
taught in the grammar school. In 1770 it was resolved by the 
faculty, for the encouragement of science, "that the student, 
on paying annually one thousand pounds of tobacco, shall be 
entitled to attend any two of the following professors, viz. : 
of law and police, of natural philosophy and mathematics, and 
of moral philosophy, the law of nature and of nations, and of 
the fine arts; and that for fifteen hundred pounds he shall be 
entitled to attend any three professors, the fees to be paid at 
that period of the year when the courses of lectures commence." 
By the statutes of 1792, the students in g-encral had to con-N 
form to a regular course, but this rule did not apply to students 1 
who came prepared, and any student was permitted to take the 
modern languages. Afterwards the rule became more general 
still, and the student was entered in the matriculation book 
"regular" or "irregular," according as he totik the prescribed 
course or not. Hence Jefferson wrote to Francis Eppes four, 
years before the opening of the university: "At William and 
Mary students are allowed to attend the schools of their choice, 
and those branches of science only which will be useful to them' 
in the line of life they propose." W. B. Rogers, chairman ot 
the faculty ot the University of Virginia, spoke" as follows 
in his report to the legislature in 1845: "Many years before 
the establishment of the university, the privilege of an election 
of studies was allowed at William and Mary. Within her 
venerable precincts liberal methods of instruction found a home 
before they were adopted by the thronged and applauded col- 

" Randall, Life of Jefferson, III., 483. 

" ^:^ge^a, Life of Wiliiam B. Rogers, I., 401. 



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176 WiLLIAUSBUKG, 

leges of New England; and in her halls were delivered by 
Bishop Madison the first regular courses of lectures on phy- 
sical science and political economy ever given in the United 
(^l-^tes." 

To this time (1779) is to be refcred also the beginnings of 
what has been called the "Honor System," which, from its 
influence upon educational discipline must be deemed worthy of 
\ especial note. It became the -aim of the professors of William 
and Mary to control the students without harrassing them with 
petty regulations or subjecting them to a system of espionage 
in the class-room and on examinations. The principle grew up 
outside of the rules, and did not receive printed recognition 
till 1817, when the statutes of the visitors contained a provision 
requiring students "to give evidence on their honor" respecting 
offences. But that the honor system had been practiced some 
years before is evident from the words of Judge Nathaniel 
Beverley Tucker, a student at the college in 1801, and who, as 
law professor, referred, in 1834, to the system as one of "long 
experience." Judge Tucker said: "It has been the study of 
its professors to cultivate at the same time the intellect, the 
principles and the deportment of the student, laboring with 
equal diligence to infUse the spirit of the scholar and the spirit 
of the gentleman. He comes to us as a gentleman. As such 
we receive and treat him, and resolutely refuse to know him in 
any other character. He is not harrassed with petty regula- 
tions ; he is not insulted and annoyed by impertinent surveil- 
lance. Spies- and informers have no countenance among us. 
We receive no accusation but from the conscience of the ac- 
cused. His honor is the only witness to which we appeal. . . . 
The effect of this system in inspiring a high and scrupulous 
sense of honor and a scorn of all disingenuous artifices has 
been ascertained by long experience, and redounds to the 
praise of its authors." 

When Mr. Jefferson founded the university of Virginia, 
this feature of William and Mary, together with its kindred 
principles, the lecture and elective systems, was transplanted 
to Oharlottesville and successfully tried there upon a wider 



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A Galaxy of Judobs, Aluuni op tub Coi-leoe- 
1. 8t. Qeoige Tuoker. 3, John Blair, Jr. 8. George Wythe. 
4. Speooer Rotme. 6. John Ma^shaU. 6. Jona Tyler, Sr. 

7. William H. Oabell. 



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178 Williamsburg, 

and more extensive field of operations. The example of that 
institution has, I believe, been potent in bringing about the 
adoption of the same principles, to some extent at least, by 
ail the colleges and universities of the Union. 

Dr. McClurg's chair of medicine continued only a few 
years, and was discontinued in 1783, when he removed to Rich- 
mond. Here he stood at the head of his profession, and was 
so highly regarded that he was appointed one of the delegates 
to the Federal Convention in 1787. 

The chair of law was continued till 1861. Judge Wythe 
removed to Richmond in 1791, and Judge St. George Tucker, 
one of the judges of the general court, became his successor. 
His lectures at the college were printed in 1803, and made the 
first distinctive text-book on the law published by any professor 
in the United States. Judge Tucker resigned in 1804, and was 
succeeded by Judge Hugh Nelson, who pursued the system of 
his predecessors. It seems, from a letter of Bishop Madison to 
C. H. Todd, that the .course was better developed than that 
pursued about the same time at the law school in Litchfield, 
Connecticut.*' 

There were a few other changes in the faculty during Madi- 
son's presidency. Robert Andrews died in 1804, and was suc- 
ceeded in the mathematical chair by George Blackwell, who 
resigned in 181 T, when Ferdinand S. Campbell came in as his 
successor. Charles Bellini died in 1803, and was succeeded by 
Louis H. Girardin, author of the fourth volume of Burk's 
" History of Virginia," who taught, besides modern languages, 
history and geography. In 1805 he removed to Richmond, after 
which the chair of modern languages was discontinued till 1829. 

In 1792 the grammar school was restored under John 
Bracken. 

In 1794 the office of chancellor of the college was tendered 
to General George Washington, who accepted it in a letter 
which hung for many years in the library of the college, and 
was finally destroyed in the fire of 1859. . _ 

The young men of that day were far from being exemplars 
of sober habits, and the literature which comes down to us 

» Sprague, Annals of Ike American Church, V., 323. 



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1. George Wiiahingtcm, •>. Jolin Tylci. 3. lliigli lilnir Qrigsby. 



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i8o Willi AMSBURGj 

shows that drinking and duelling caused the professors much 
trouble. Two "riots," more famous than others, happened in 
i8oz and 1808. Williamsburg was the hot-bed of republican 
sentiments ; and French rationalism and atheism in that day 
were rampant in society. The number of students was only 
about fifty or sixty," but they were the pick of Virginia, and 
there were very few among them who did not make name and 
fame. Among the students at this period were Winfield Scott, 
John J. Crittenden, Henry St. George Tucker, William S. Ar- 
cher, John W. Jones, Philip P. Barbour, John Tyler, William 
Taylor Barry, Joseph C. Cabell and Littleton Waller Tazewell, 
In 1804 William Taylor Barry, afterwards postmaster-gen- 
eral under President Andrew Jackon, wrote as follows re- 
garding the college : 

WiLLiAMSBUBQ, Fehruory 6tb, 1S04. 

You ask me to give a minute account of mj present 

situation, how 1 am pleased, what are my prospects, etc., which 1 do 
with a great deal of pleasure. First, as respects my professional pur- 
suits. [Here he repeats in substance what he had formerly written.] 
Mr, Tucker is a man more profoundly read in the Law perhaps than 
any lawyer of the present time. No person can with more ease and 
facility ^^mp or elucidate any'knotty or abstruse point of law, and 
he not only possesses the capability of doing it, but does it with will- 
ingness; jand .'Appears solicitous to communicate every information that 
he is posSessffll of. . . . I'll tell you how I employ my time gen- 
erally. I rise about sun up, read until II o'c, then go to the lecture 
room, the examinations almost always detain me until 2 o'c In the 
evening. I then return and dine about 3 o'c. The rest of the evening 
1 devote- 1« exercise^and company, until about 7 o'c at night, when I 
commence' reading again and continue at it until 11 o'c, which is good 
bedtime. This is my general line of conduct, but I do not always eon- 
form to it. Sometimes I read less, sometimes more. I attend Mr. 
Madison's lectures on Friday; ihey are at once improving and nighly 
gratifying. I thought at ilrst I would not attend them, but give all 
my attention to Law, as Natural Philosophy is a subject not so im- 
mediately interesting. But T concluded that one day in the week would 
not be much, and that it would serve as a rels;xation from my other 

"•These numbers, however, were not greatly less than the attendance 
at the Northern colleges. Princeton College had 84 in 1810. 



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GEOHOC WAmUMITDN. 

Prp-idont of llie Uiiilpd Stales. 
Surveyor in 17411, Cliaiic'pllor in 1704. 



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1 82 Willi AMSDUKG, 

studies. Beaides, I might not have Buoh another wpportunity of extend- 
ing my knowledge in that department of sciance. 1 imagine no person 
is better qualilied t« lecture on Natural Philosophy than Mr. Madison, 
and there is no college on the continent that has such extensive appara- 
tus as this. 

President Madison died March 6, 1812, in the 63rd year of 
his age, and his remains were interred in a vault under the 
floor of the chapel of the college. 

After the death of Dr. Madison, John Bracken was presi- 
dent and professor of moral philosophy for two years, and then 
came John Augustine Smith, who held the same office till 1827, 
The succession of professors was as follows: The chair of 
natural philosophy and chemistry was held in 181 2 by John 
McLean; in 1814 by Dr. Thomas L. Jones; in 1818, by Dr. 
Robert Hare; in 1819, by Dr. P. K. Rogers; and in 1829, by 
William B. Rogers — men of great eminence in their profession. 
In the department of law Judge Hugh Nelson resigned, and 
was succeeded by his brother. Chancellor Robert Nelson, who 
died July 9, 1818, in his fortieth year, and was followed by 
Judge James Semple. 

After the election of Mr. Bracken as president, the grammar 
school had been discontinued, but in 1819 the board passed an 
order to establish in the college a chair of history and humanity, 
and Mr. Reuel Keith was selected for the position. November 
13, 1820, the faculty decided that the books to be used in the 
first part of Mr. Keith's humanity course should be Virgil and 
Salhist in Latin, and the collection entitled "Graeca Minora" in 
Greek; and that the text-books of the historical course should 
be Hume's "History of England," and Ramsay's "History of 
America." These proceedings are interesting, for they mark 
\ the period when Latin was first elevated at William and Mary 
to a college study ; and it shows that the teaching of American 
history was probably done earlier at William and Mary than 
anywhere else in America. Mr, Keith remained, however, at 
William and Mary only two years. In 1817 a new edition of the 
statutes was published. 

In the meantime, the finances had much improved by the 
sale of the college lands, and amounted, in 1824, to $153,642.71. 



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184 Williamsburg, 

But there were stormy times ahead. The number of 
students had reached a high figure"" immediately after the 
war of 1812, and after 1817 the numbers steadily declined. 
This decline was probably due to the change in Mr. Jefferson's 
plans of establishing the college as the state university, and 
his patronage of a rival institution close at home. In promoting 
their scheme, Mr. Jefferson and his friends appeared to have 
changed their views as to the college and the neighborhood of 
Williamsburg, and pretended to see only failure in any effort 
to revive a college with such an "antiquated" constitution and 
situated in so "unhealthy" a region. Such opinions, indus- 
triously propagated by friends of the new university in the 
legislature, had the effect of diminishing the attendance at the 
college; and in 1824, President Smith conceived it necessary, 
in order to save the college from destruction, to apply to the 
legislature for permission to move the institution to Richmond, 
and was supported in the application by the majority of the 
board and the faculty. He was opposed, however, by the rector 
of the board, John Tyler, and a brother-in-law of the rector, 
John B. Seawell, in the visitors, and another brother-in-law. 
Judge Semple, in the faculty. The town people also strongly 
opposed the movement, and the friends of the university joined 
from interested motives. There was much excitement, and Mr. 
Tyler made a great speech in the legislature, and the removal 
proposition was rejected. Dr. Smith resigned soon after, and 
was succeeded by Rev. William H. Wilmer, an Episcopal 
clergyman. 

Mr. Wilmer's administration lasted less than two years, and 
on October 16, 1827, Rev. Adam Empie, of Schenectady, New 
York, was, by the board of visitors, made president. The laws 
were codified and republished; and under Empie the old 
jealousies fell into the background ; the college began to recover 
from its depression, and the number of students steadily in- 
creased. Two features of his administration may be especially 
noted. The first was the revival of the grammar school and 
the appointment of Dabney Brown to conduct it, with the as- 

"In 1817 the number waa 92. 



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1. Jameh Mahlsos, D. D., President 1777-lfll2. 
a. JoKN AudtrMTi.NK Smith, M, l\, Prpaideiit 1814- 
3. AriAU Khi'Ib, Presiilent 1827-1830. 



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iSO Williamsburg, 

sistance of an usher; and the second was the election of 
Thomas R. Dew, a former master of arts of the college, to the 
chair of history and political law. As defined in an advertise- 
ment, the subject matter of his chair was intended to embrace 
"natnral and national law, politicks, history and philosophy of 
the hitman mind, and political economy." The text book on 
natural and national law was Vattel, with reference to Ruther- 
forth's Institutes; in political economy. Smith's Wealth of 
Nations; in Metaphysics, Brown's Works abridged; and in 
civics, Locke On Government and Ramsay's Social Contract. 
Lectures were delivered at least three times a week on each 
subject. 

Professor Dew gave probably the most thorough and com- 
prehensive courses that can be found in any of the colleges of 
his times. His work, embodying his lectures on the "Restric- 
tive System" and on the "Laws, Customs, Manners and Institu- 
tions of Ancient and Modern Nations." cover a wide range of 
thought, and are worthy of study in the class-room to-day. 
In 1836 he became president, and his vigorous administration, 
supported by Judge N. Beverley Tucker, professor of law; 
John Millington, professor of chemistry and natural science; 
Robert Saunders, professor of mathematics; and Dabney 
Brown, professor of humanity, who then constituted the facul- 
ty, brought about a golden period for the college. Under them 
the roll was raised in the year 18,-^9 to 140. of whom about 30 
were law students. This attendance was the largest ever seen 
at the institution. John Millington was trained in the best 
schools of Europe, and was the author of famous scientific 
works ; and Mr. Tucker, who succeeded Judge Semple in 1834, 
was of varied talents as lecturer, author and oolitical writer. 
He raised the work of his law school to the highest plane, and 
his friendship was sought by men of the first importance in the 
Union. 

In one other respect the influence of William and Mary, 
under Dew, may be noticed. 

Roth George Wythe and St. George Tucker, who stood at 
the head of the law department from 1779 to 1804, were advo- 
cates of the emancipation of the slaves, and their teachings, no 



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1. General William It. Talinferro, 2. Grneral VVii 
8. Major George Ci-ogb&D. 



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i88 Williamsburg, 

doubt, had much to do with producing that spirit of philan- 
thropy so prevalent in Virginia till the sudden onslaught of the 
abolitionists. When Garrison went to Baltimore city about 
1829 to join Benjamin Lundy in the publication of an emanci- 
pation newspaper, there were some 300 societies in the South- 
ern States bottomed upon a moral dissatisfaction with the insti- 
tution of slavery. Garrison changed the direction of Lundy's 
work, who had done much to promote the cause in the South, 
and entered upon a crusade of abuse and incendiarism, which, 
in some measure, changed the course of sentiment in Virginia. 
The reaction took place and the benefits of slavery, "socially, 
politically and economically," were preached at William and 
Mary from 1826 to 1851, by Thomas R. Dew and Nathaniel 
Beverley Tucker, 

Dr. Dew died in Paris in 1846, while on a wedding trip, and 
he was succeeded as president by Robert Saunders, professor 
of mathematics. His brief administration is noted for one of 
those unfortunate rows that sometimes invade even literary 
circles, proving that we are all "poor mortals" alike. Personal 
difficulties in the faculty and among leading citizens in the town 
were involved with a renewal of the attempt to remove the 
college to Richmond. Finally, all the faculty resigned except 
Judge N. B. Tucker, and for a year (1848-49) all the college 
classes except the law classes, were suspended, Benjamin S, 
Ewell serving as president pro tempore. 

As reorganized, the faculty consisted, in 1849, "^ John 
Johns, assistant bishop of the Episcopal church of Virginia, 
president ; Benjamin S. Ewell, professor of mathematics ; 
Nathaniel E. Tucker, professor of law ; William F. Hopkins, 
professor of natural philosophy and chemistry; Dr. Silas 
Totten, professor of moral and intellectual science; Henry A. 
Washington, professor of history and political economy; and 
Morgan J. Smead, professor of humanij^. The number of stu- 
dents rose from twenty-one in 1849- '50 ^° eighty-two in 
i853-'54. Dr. Johns resigned in a letter dated March 31, 1854, 
and the faculty was then composed as follows: Benjamin S, 
Ewell, president, and professor of mathematics and natural 
sciences; Rev, Silas Totten, D, D., professor of moral and in- 



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College of Wii.mam and Mahy. 189 

tellectiial philosophy, belles-lettres, and rhetoric ; Morgan J. 
Smead, Ph. D., professor of languages ; Henry A, Washington, 
professor of history and political economy; Judge George P. 
Scarburgh, professor of municipal and constitutional law; 
Robert Gatewood, adjunct professor of mathematics. 

Mr. Ewell devoted himself to the upbuilding of the college, • 
and got out, in 1855, the first general catalogue of the institu- 
tion. In 1857 John Tyler was elected cliancellor — the first 
since Washington. In 1859 there was a new issue of the 
general catalogue, by Robert J. Morrison, professor of history 
and political economy, and a little later, in the same year, on 
Ikbruary 8, the main building of the college was accidentally 
d^troyed by fire. The greatest loss was the library, of about 
8,000 volumes, thc^cunudation of 150 years, and in part the 
gifts of kings, archiishops, bishops, nobles, colonial governors 
and the assembly. The library was then in the north wing, 
over the department of natural science. The fire destroyed all 
the instruments, and among them were some constructed by 
Nairne and selected by Dr. Small a hundred years before. The 
mural tablets in the chapel, to the memory of Sir John Ran- 
dolph and Right Rev. James Madison, crumbled away under 
the intense heat. 

Notwithstanding, the friends of the college would not des- 
pair. There was a large meeting of the alumni to hear an 
addrc.is from the chancellor, John Tyler, and a poem from St. 
George Tucker, ostiuirc. Funds were solicited, and, in -a 
remarkably sl^t space of time, the college was ready for occu- 
pation again. The following is extracted from a report made 
by a committee to the faculty at a meeting on Tebruary 8, i860, 
one year after its destruction: 

The new coll<>ge edlfl^^e has been complelcd, and fully furniahed, On 
the 11th of October, 1850, the capstone of the building was laid by the 
(Jrard Ijodge of Virginia, and the college exerciaea have been conducted 
in it without Interruption from the beginning of the present Heseion. 
The buildings are In every way suitable, and in an eminent degree oon^ 
venient and comfortable. The lecture-rooms are furnished with all the 
nppUancea for illustration in the several departments of Instruction. 
The pbllosopblcal apparatus is very complete. The walls of the lecture- 



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I (JO WiLLIAMSDIIRG, 

rooma of natural science are hung with valuable pietorial dta^ramii. 
The departsient of clieniistry is well provided -dth chemicals and 
instruments for experiment and research. ' The lecture- room' of history 
has tieen provided ttitl) a fall set of the most SatUaMe lAural maps, 
geographical and historical, on the largest scale, and of the most accu- 
rate construction. 

The. literary societies of the college have been provided with large 
and handsome halls, which are furnished in the most ccHufortabte man- 
ner. To each of these is attached an apartment for library and read- 
ing-room. .-....., 

Thechapel has b*en reatoreil, and the remains of its illintrious -dead 
still lie' undisturbed within its walls. . - . , ' "." . . 

Tbe library has been conveniently -and handsomely furnished: with 
<;ams for books, and already contains about six thausajid volumes, ob- 
tained partly by purchase, and partly by the donations of public- spirited 
individuals. 

Thus, within one year, th-> losses by the Are of Febi^ary S, 1859, 
have, in every material point of view, been completely restored; and in 
all the essentials of its building, furniture, 'apparaj:us and library, the 
college is now in a better condition. than .■. was on tni t <<ay. 

Early in May, 1861, the actual existence of war at its very 
threshold rendered it necessary for the college to. suspend its 
exercises, and President B. S. Ewell and nearly all the students 
and professors hurried into the Confederate army.- The main 
building was occilpied by the -Confederate troops, and used 
iirst as a barracks and later as a hospital. When General John- 
ston retreated up the Peninsula, in 1862, the Federal troops oc- 
cupied the college for'similar purposes. While garrisoned. hy 
the fifth regiment of Pennsylvania cavalry, Williamsburg was 
surprised by a detachment of Confederate cavalry, who captured 
a part of the Federal troops and drove the rest down 'to York- 
town. The Federals soon after returned, and some of the gar- 
rison, provoked by defeat and under the influence of drink and 
before organiz,ation or subordination was restored, fired and 
destroyed- the principal building; recently erected, with the fur- 
niture and apparatus.-' At later periods of the war, all of the 
remaining houses on the college premises were greatly injured, 

"The hooka in tlie library had been removed, fortunately, to the 
president's house, and were preserved. 



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1. KuBEKT Savncjeiw, Ti-esidrat in IH47 -IHJS. 

2. TiiuMAH It. J)KW, I'lwicli-nt IK:t(lOH4H. 

3. JoilS .Idiinm. 1>. IX, I'rp.'ifl-pnt 1H4H-1M4. 

4. Ue\.iami.n S. Ewkll, I'n-Hidert IH54-188S. 



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192 Williamsburg, 

the wood-work being taken out of the Brafferton building, and 
the enclosures around the president's house and college yard 
being removed and burnt up. The vaults of the college chapel 
were broken open and robbed of the silver plates attached to the 
coffins, and of whatever else of value they were found to 
contain. This desecration was checked, it is stated, when it 
became known to the military commander. 

After the war was over, Colonel Ewell went to the assist- 
ance of the college, and opposed the project of the removal of 
the institution to Richmond. The burnt buildings were re- 
stored, and, in 1S69, the faculty was again reorganized, Colonel 
Ewell chosen president, and Hugh B. Grigsby elected chan- 
cellor, to succeed John Tyler, who died in 1862. The cost of 
repairs and the pay of professors, however, caused a heavy 
drain on the endowment fund, which the fees of the students 
did not make up, and after many efforts to support the sinking 
fortunes of the institution. President Ewell was compelled to 
witness a suspension of the exercises in 1881. The attempts 
to raise money in the North by personal subscription, and to 
obtain indemnity from congress, had also failed, and the college 
seemed sunk to its lowest state. 

The College Transferred to the State. 

After seven years of suspension, during which time the 
revenues of the college were well husbanded, it was determined 
by the board of visitors to apply to the legislature for aid to 
connect a system of normal instruction and training with the 
college course. This idea had been a favorite one with Presi- 
dent Ewell. and received also the warm endorsement of General 
William B. Taliaferro, of the board of visitors, and of Judge 
Warner T. Jones, also of the board. It was received with favor 
by the general assembly, and a bill was approved by the gov- 
ernor, March 5, 1888, appropriating annually $10,000 to the 
support of the college, and providing for a new board of visi- 
tors, to consist of ten appointees under the charter, and ten 
appointees of the governor, with the superintendent of public 
instruction as member e.v-officio. Under the bill a reorganiza- 



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College of William and Mary, 193 

tion was again effected, and President Ewell, having declined 
any active connection with the institution by reason of his age, 

was retired as president emeritus. 

The new faculty consisted of Lyon G. Tyler, president and 
professor of moral science, political economy and civil govern- 
ment: J. Lesslie Hall {late fellow of Johns Hopkins university), 
professor of English language and history ; T. J. Stubbs, Ph. D., 
professor of mathematics; Lyman B. Wharton, A. M,, D, D,, 
professor of ancient and modern languages ; Van F. Garrett, 
M, D., professor of natural science; and Hugh S. Bird, L, I., 
professor of pedagogics. The very first year afterwards the col- 
lege attendance was 104, and it continued to increase, the num-. 
ber rising, in itjofi, to 244. In 1893 the congress of the 
United States, chiefly through the influence of Hon. George F. 
Hoar, of Massachusetts; Hon, Frank Beltzhoover, of Pennsyl- 
vania ; and General N. M. Curtis, of New York, passed a bill to 
indemnify the college partially for its losses; and, in 1906, a 
transfer was made to the State. 

This was done without violence to any one's feelings, and 
seemed to be a natural consummation of the relations which 
the college has always borne to the State. In its origin the > 
college was a State creation, and for a hundred years was the 
only one in Virginia. The general assembly selected the first 
board of governors and its first president, and contributed for 
many years to its support, After the Revolution, State and 
college drifted apart, but, in 1888, the connection was renewed; 
and, after drawing closer and closer together, the college was 
finally absorbed by the State through an act approved March 7, 
1906, and put upon the footing of a regular State institution. 
The process was very simple. With the consent of the authori- 
ties, the property of the college was transferred from the old 
corporation entitled "The President and Masters or Professors 
of the College of William and Mary in Virginia," to the new 
corporation styled "The College of William and Mary in Vir- 
ginia." The act provides that this corporation shall consist of 
eleven members, viz.: the superintendent of public instruction 
and ten gentlemen, to be appointed by the governor for four 
years each. 



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194 Williamsburg, 

A comparison of the present condition of William and 
Mary, with what it was in l888, will show the strides made 
by the institution. In 1888 the funds of the institution, after 
payment of debts, did not exceed $20,000 all told, and, because 
of its inability to support a faculty, the doors of the college had 
been closed for seven years. The buildings were only five in 
number, and they were out of repair and without any of the 
modem improvements. At the present writing (1907), the 
endowment fund reaches the sum of $154,000, and the college 
receives annually $35,000 from the state. During the past 
session the college had almost twice as many students as it 
ever had in its most prosperous days. There are ten buildings, 
all in fine condition, well equipped, lighted with electricity, and 
supplied with the purest sort of water from an artesian well. 
The college grounds have been surrounded with new fences, 
and granolithic walks have taken the place of the old dirt paths. 
The library has grown from 7,000 volumes in 1888, to 15,000. 
The corps of instructors numbers 25, when at no time previous 
to 1888 did the number exceed ten. The college maintains an 
observation and training school, which is attended by upwards 
of 133 children. A sewer system has been put in, and a new 
library building will soon be erected. 

Presidents and Professors. 

PBESIDBNTS. 

James Blair, A. M., D. D., 1693-IT43; Rev. William DaWacn, D. D., 
1743-1752; Hev. William Stith, A. M., 1T52-1755; Rev. Tliomas Dawson, 
A. M., 1765-lTei ; Rev. William Yates, 1T81-1764 ; Rev. James Horrocka, 
1T64-1771; Rev. John Camm, A. M., 1771-1777; Et. Rev. James Madi- 
son, D. D., 1777-1812; Rev. John Bracken, 1812-1814; John Auguetine 
Smith, M. D., 1S14-1826; Rev. William H. Wilmer, D. D., 1828-1827; 
Kev. Adam Empie, D. D., 1827-1836; Thomas E. Dew, A. M., 1838-1846; 
Robert Saunders, A. M., 1846-1848; Benjamin S. Ewell, LL.D., 1843- 
1849; Rt Kev. John Johns, D. D., 1849-1854; Benjamin S. Ewell, 1854- 
1888; Lyon G. Tyler, LL. D., 1888 . 



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College of Williah^ and Mary. i; 

UA8TEB8 AKD PROABBOBB. 

Bev. Mungo Inglis, 1694," master of the graroinar ichool. 

KeT. Arthur Btackamore.ali't 1706. " " " 

Rev. Mungo Inglii, 1716 " " " 

Rev. Hugh Jonea, 1719 " " " 

Joshua Pry, 1728 " " " 

Rev. William Stith, 1731 " 

Rev. Edward Ford, 1737 " " " 

Rev. Thomai Robinson, 1742 " " " 

Rev. Goronwy Owen, 1T5B, " " " 

Rev. William Wehh, 1760, " " 

Rev. JoMes Horrocks, 1763, " " " 

Rev. JoBiah Johnson, 1767 " " " 

Rev. Thomas Gwatkin, 1773, " " " 

Rev, John Bracken, 1773, " " " 

Rev. Ja». Henderson, adj't, 17B2,. , . " " " 

Dabney Brown, 1820, " " " 

William R. Garrett, 18Q6 

T. J. Stubbs, 1B68, 

J. Wilmer Turner, 1869, " " " 

Christopher Jackeon, before 1716, master of the Indian school. 

Christopher Smith, 1716, " " " 

Rev. Charles Griffin, about 1720,. . " " " 

Richard Cocke, before 1729, " " " 

Rev. John Fox, 1729, " " " 

Rev. Robert Barrett, 1737, " " " 

Rev. Thomas Dawson, 1738, " " " 

Rev. Emanuel Jones, 1755, " " " 

Charles Bellini, 1779 profeasor of modern languages. 

Louis H, Girardin, 1803 

C. de La Pena, 1829 " " " 

Edwin Taliaferro, 1358, professor of romance languages. 

Edward 8. Joynes, 1868, professor of German. 

Tliomaa P. McCandlleh, 1869 professor of French. 

Frank Preston, 186B, profeni-ar of German and German literature. 

Rev. L. B. Wharton, 1870 professor of German literature. 

Rev. L. B. Wharton, 1872, professor of modern language!. 

Dr. Charles E. Bishop, 1802...... " *' " 

George Wythe, 1779, professor of law. 

St. George Tucker, 1791, 

Hugh Nelson, 1804 

Robert Nelson, 1811, " 

James Semple, 1810, " 

Nathaniel Beverley Tucker, 1831, . , " 

"The figures following the names give the year of qualification. 



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196 



Williamsburg, 



Gearge P. Scarburgh, 1854, professor of law. 

Lucien Minor, 18S9, " " 

CUarles Morris, 1860 " « 

Dr. James McClurg, ITTO, professor of medicine. 

Le Fevre, 1712, prof, natural philoso. and math. 

Rev. Hugh Jones, 1718, " " " " 

Alexander Irvine, 1728, " " " " 

Joshua Fry, 1732, " " " " 

John Graeme, 1737, " " " " 

Rev. Richard Graham, 1749, " " " " 

William Small, 1758 " 

Rev. Thomas Gwatkin, 1770 " " " " 

Rev, James Madison, 1773 " " " '■ 

Benjamin S. Ewell, 1840, " " " " 

Rev. Robert Andrews, 17S4, professor of mathematics. 

George Blackburn, 1805, " " 

Ferdinand S. Campbell, 1811, " 

Robert Saunders, 1833, " " 

Benjamin S. Ewell, 1848, 

Tho. T. L. Snead, 1868, " " 

Benjamin S. Ewell, 1887, " " 

Tho. Jefferson Stubhs, 1888, " " 

Rev. James Madison, 1784, professor of natural philosophy. 

Dr. John McLean, 1812 

Dr. Thomas L. Jones, 1814 " " " 

Dr. Robert Hare, 1818, " " " 

Dr. P. K. Rogers, 1810, prof, natural philoso. and chemistrj. 

Dr. William B. Rogers, 1820, " 

Dr. John Millington, 1836, " 

William F. Hopkins, 1849 " 

Benjamin S. Ewell, 1848, " " " " 

Richard A. Wise, 1860 professor of chemistry. 

Van F. Garrett, 1888, professor of natural science. 

John W. Ritchie, lOOfl, professor ot biology. 

■> Rev. James Fontaine, 1720, professor of divinity. 

Rev. Bartholomew Yates, 1729,... " " 

Rev. John Camm, 1749, " " 

Hev. John Dixon, 1770, " " 

Rev. William Dawson, 1729, professor of moral philosophy. 

Rev. William Preston, 1752 

Rev. Jacob Rowe, 1758, " " 

Rev. Richard Graham, 1761, " " 

Rev. Samuel Henley, 1770 " " 

Rev. Robert Andrews, 1777, " " 

Rev. James Madison, 1784, " " 

Dr. J. Augustine Smith, 1814, 



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College of William and Mary. 197 

Rev. William H. Wilmer, 1826,. .. professor of moral philosophy. 

Thomas R. Dew, 1828, " " 

Archibald C. Peachy, 1847, 

Rt. R«v. John Johns, 1849, " ■' 

Rev. Silaa Totten, 1840, " " 

Kev. George T. Wilmer, 18(10 

, Lyon Q, Tyler, 18/7, 1888 " " 

HuRh S, Bird, 1898, 

Bruce R. Payne, 1B04, " " 

A. B. Coffey, 1005, 

J. Lesslie Hall, 1883, Kiif;lUh language and literature. 

Jamas S. Wilson, lOOfl. assistant prof, in Kngtish language and lit. 

Louis H. Gira'rdin, IS03, prof, of history and geography. 

Rev. Reuel Keith, 1821 English and United States history. 

Thomas R. Dew, 1820 " " " 

George Frederick Holmes, 1840,. . .history, political economy, etc. 

Henry A. Washington, 1848, " " " 

Robert J. Morrison, 1858, " " " 

J. Leslie Hall, 1888, history (U. S., English and gen'i). 

Lyon G. Tyler, 1808 prof. American hist, and politics. 

Rev. Reuel Keith, 1821, Latin and Greek languages. 

Rev. Charles Minnegerode, 1842, " " " 

Morgan J. Smead, 1848 Latin and Greek languages. 

Edwin Taliaferro, 18S8 professor of Latin. 

Edward S. Joynes, 1868 professor of Greek. 

■Thomas P. MeCandlish, 1869, professor of Latin. 

Frank Preston, 1860, professor of Greek. 

Rev. L. B. Wharton, 1870 " " 

Charles S. Dod, 1874,, . . .adjunct professor in Latin, French, etc. 
Rev. Lyman B. Wharton, 1838, ,. .professor of ancient languages. 
Rev. Lyman B. Wharton, 1892,. . .professor of Latin, 
Charles Edward Bishop, 1802 professor of Greek. 

Walter A. Montgomery, 1006 Latin, adjunct prof Greek. 

Rev. H. T. Louthan, 1003, adjunct prof. Greek and mod. lang. 

Hugh S. Bird, 1888, professor of education. 

Bruce R, Payne, 1904, " " 

A. B. Coffey, 1005, 

R. M. Crawford, 1005, professor of drawing and manual arts. 
Lucy L. Davis, 1805, principal of Observation and Training School. 
Nannie C, Davis, 1002, " " " " 

Rev. W. J. King, 1002 Physical Director, 

T. M. Blanchard, 1B04, 

Henry W. Withers, 1006, 



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igS Williamsburg, 

Objects of Interest at the College. 

The main college building stands at the west end of the 
main street of WiUiamsbui^ in an angle, of which the sides 
are respectively the road to Jamestown and the road to Rich- 
mond. In front of the building, standing to the right and left, 
facing one another, are the Brafferton building (founded 1723) 
and the president's house (1732). Set half-way between the 
gate and the main building is the mutilated statue of Lord 
Botetourt, by Richard Hayward, of London (1773)- At the 
steps of the main building is one of the stones formerly used 
to mark the bounds of the original college tract, with the date 
( 1694) and the college monogram. On the path leading from 
the president's house to the main building is the old sun-dial of 
the college, going back before the Revolution. On the green 
is a cannon, formerly at Fort Christanna (established by Gov- 
ernor Spotswood on the frontierfe m Brunswick County in 
1712), and removed to the college on the first day of the twen- 
tieth century. 

In the main building itself the chapel and library contain 
perhaps the objects of most interest. On the walls of the chapel 
are tablets to the "Founders of the College," to Sir John Ran- 
dolph, to George Wythe, and to Benjamin S. Ewell. Under 
the floor are vaults containing the remains of several eminent 
persons : ( I ) Sir John Randolph and his two eminent sons, Pey- 
ton Randolph, first president of the continental congress, and 
John Randolph, the last royal attorney-general of Virginia; 
(2) Norbome, Lord Botetourt, best beloved of Virginia's 
royal governors; (3) Right Rev. James Madison; (4) Chan- 
cellor Robert Nelson. On the walls of the chapel and library 
are some forty-five portraits, the most interesting for their age 
or authorship being Rev. James Blair {two portraits) ; Sarah 
Harrison, his wife ; Hon, Robert Boyle, by T. Kerseboom ; 
Colonel John Page, by Sir Peter Lely, London, 1660; Hon. 
John Page, of North End, Gloucester County, by Bridges, 
1750; Jane Byrd, wife of Hon, John Page, by Bridges; Gov- 
ernor John Page, by Benjamin West; Judge John Tyler, by 
James Worrell, an early Virginia artist; Sir John Randolph 



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200 Williamsburg, 

and his wife, Susannah Beverky (from miniatures), by Bruce, 
of Winchester. In the Hbrary are the original faculty and 
steward's records, beginning in 1729; the records of the Phi 
Beta Kappa Society, 1776-1781 ; map of the Brafferton lordship 
in the north riding of Yorkshire, by George Pape, surveyor, 
(1773) ; the dies from which the Botetourt gold medals were 
struck, (1772-1776) — these medals being the first collegiate 
prizes of their kind in the United States ; the silver plate taken 
from the coffin of Lord Botetourt by a private soldier of the 
Federal army and restored in 1893 by an Albany, New York, 
j-eweler, to whom it was sold. 

In the science hall are some interesting pieces of physical 
apparatus selected by William B. Rogers, and several donated 
by Ex-President John Tyler. 

Summary of Leading Fads Regarding the College. 
1693- 1907. 

The college of William and Mary is in its antecedents the 
oldest of American colleges; in actual operation it is second 
only to Harvard. The project of a college for Virginia was 
agitated as early as 1617, three years before the pilgrims landed 
at Plymouth Rock, An Indian massacre put a stop to the en- 
terprise, but after many years the original intention was con- 
summated in the college established at Middle Plantation {now 
Williamsburg), in 1693, and named in honor of the ruling 
monarchs. King William and Queen Mary. 

It is the first college that received its charter direct from 
the crown of England, and the only one that received its coat- 
of-arms from the college of Heralds in London. It was the 
first college in the United States to have a full faculty of pro- 
fessors {1729); the first to adopt the lecture system (1758); 
the first to establish the elective and honor systems (1779) ; the 
first to widen its scope into that of a university (1779) ; the 
first to establish courses in municipal and constitutional law 
(1779), modern languages (1779), political economy (1779), 
history (1803) ; the first to organize a Greek letter intercolle- 
giate fraternity, the Phi Beta Kappa Society; and the first 



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PttOMINENT AU'MNI. 

1, Jl-mie William W, Cbump, Hector of the Board in 1888. 
2, Hbhrv St. Oeoroe Tucker, President of the State Supreme Court. 
3. NATitAMiKL Bbveblet Tuckbb, I'rofeHSor of Low 1834--lHfil. 



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202 Williamsburg, 

to award gold medals as collegiate prizes, donated by Lord 
Botetourt in 1770. 

The alumni of the college exerted more influence on the 
making of the Union than the alumni of any other institution. 
Richard Bland was the first to announce in a pamphlet that 
America was no part of the kingdom of England, and was only 
united with it by the common tic of the crown (1766). Dabney 
Carr was the patron of the resolutions for the appointment of 
committees of intercolonial correspondence (1773). Peyton 
Randolph was the first president of the continental congress 
( 1774) . Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independ- 
ence (1776). Jo'hn Tyler, Sr., carried through the Virginia 
legislature the proposition for the convention at Annapolis 
{1786). Edmund Randolph opened the proceedings at Phila- 
delphia by submitting "the Virginia plan" (1787). John Mar- 
shall settled the construction of the constitution. George Wash- 
ington, though not an alumnus, received from the college his 
first public office of surveyor, and his last as chancellor of the 
institution. 

Of the seven presidents of the United States, bom in Vir- 
ginia, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe and John Tyler were 
educated at William and Mary. To these men is to be ascribed 
the annexation of Louisiana, Florida, Texas and most of the 
western territory, thus trebling the original area of the Union. 
The most illustrious of the chief justices, John Marshall, was 
an alumnus, and so was the most distinguished commander of 
the Federal army down to 1861, General Winfield Scott. James 
Monroe announced the Monroe doctrine, defining our relations 
to this continent. In the period from 1789 to r86i the college 
furnished sixteen out of twenty-seven senators from Virginia, 
three out of four speakers of the house of representatives from 
Virginia, two out of the three ministers plenipotentiary to 
England, four out of the six ministers to France; and John 
James Beckley, first librarian of congress and first clerk of the 
house of representatives, was a William and Mary man. 

By the results of the Revolutionary war, the college was 
left with little property but its lands, amounting to about 
20,000 acres in different parts of the State, These were sold. 



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John Tvler, Sr. 
Governor of VirRinia in 1808-1811; JudBr of llie UnitPiI States 



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204 WlLLIAMSCURG, 

and an endowment fund was realized of about $150,000, by 
means of which, with fees, the college was supported till 1861. 
During the war the main college building was burned by some 
disorderly Federal troops, and most of the endowment fund 
was lost by investment in Confederate bonds. 

For many years after the war the college was in a very 
crippled condition, but in 1888 the State formed a connection 
with it, and it is now more prosperous than ever it was. The 
endowment fund has been raised from about $20,000, all that 
remained after the war, to $154,000, yielding an interest of 
about $7,000. The college receives in addition annually the 
sum of $35,000 from the State of Virginia, and keeps up, 
in connection with the regular collegiate course, a 
course of normal instruction and training. All the old build- 
ings have been restored, and there have been added an in- 
firmary, a dormitory, a gymnasium, and a science hall. The 
college is also equipped with electric lights, artesian well water, 
and a sewer system. The largest attendance in the annals of 
the institution, at any time before the late war, was about 140, 
but the attendance this session is nearly double this figure. The 
faculty consists of a president, nine full professors, one ad- 
junct professor, two assistant professors, one physical director, 
one principal of the observation and training school, and ten 
instructors. It has classes in American history, political 
economy, civil government, English literature, general history, 
Latin, Greek, mathematics, modern languages, education, 
natural science, chemistry, biology, drawing, manual arts, psy- 
chology, logic and ethics. 



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The Capitol. 

In the act of 1699 for the building of Williamsburg, pro- 
vision was made for the erection of a government house as 
follows: It was to be called "Tlie Capitol," a pretentious title, 
attributed by Robert Beverley, 'the historian, to Governor 
Nicholson, who used the term for the first time in America, 
Four hundred and seventy-five feet square of land, already 
surveyed, was to be for its use. The new structure was to con- 
sist of two buildings seventy-five feet long, from inside to in- 
side, lying perpendicularly to Duke of Gloucester Street. These 
buildings were to be connected by a gallery, so as to form a 
figure like the letter H. Each building was to be two stories 
high; to be surmounted with a hip roof, shingled with cypress, 
and having dormer windows ; and one end of each building was 
to be made semi-circular. A portion of each ground floor, 
twenty-five feet in length, was to be cut off and made into four 
compartments, one of which was to be occupied by a grand 
staircase to the story above. This left in each building a room 
fifty feet long, at each circular end, which was to be covered 
with flagstone. The space in the second' story of each building 
was to be divided into rooms according to the discretion of 
the committee in charge.' 

The width of each part of the capitol was ordered to be 
twenty-five feet from inside to inside. The approach to each 
building was to be by a circular porch fifteen feet wide, having 
an iron balcony overhead, supported by cedar columns. The 
grand folding doors, six feet in width, opened upon these 
porches, and afforded an entrance into the respective buildings. 

The first story was to be fifteen fool pitch, and the second 
story ten foot pitch. The entrance doors and the windows of 
the first story were to be arched. The portico joining the two 
parts of the capitol was to be thirty feet long and twenty-five 

'Hcniiig, Stotutm nt Large, III., 11)7, 213, 410. WUiiam, and Mary 
Coll. Quarterly. X.. 7S. 



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2o6 Williamsburg, 

feet each way, raised upon piazzas, and built as high as the 
other parts. Over the middle of the gallery was ordered a 
cupola to reach above the rest of the building. On it was to 
be a clock, and upon the top was to float, upon proper occasion?, 
the Union Jack of Great Britain. 

The whole was to be of brick — the foundations up to or 
near the surface of the ground, four bricks thick ; thence to the 
water table, three bricks and a half brick thick ; thence to the 
top of the first story three bricks thick ; an3 thence to the top 
of the second story, two bricks and half a brick thick. 

The building of the capitol was placed in the hands of the 
committee which had been appointed to make a revision of the 
laws of the colony, and, pursuant to this authority, they met 
July 7, 1701, and appointed Mr. Henry Cary as manager, at a 
salary of £100 a year, and authorized Mr. John Tullitt, of 
James City County, to make 600,000 bricks, at 20 shillings a 
thousand. The building was far enough advanced in August, 
1702, to permit the general assembly to designate the use of the 
rooms. As described by Hugh Jones and the journal of the 
council, the great room on the ground floor at the west end, 
with its four galleries, was set apart for the use of the general 
court, and adjoining thereto was the secretary's office. Up- 
stairs was the council chamber, where the governor and council 
sat in state, "in imitation of the king and council, or the lord 
chancellor and house of lords." In the east wing, below stairs, 
was the hall of the house of burgesses, which was said to be not 
unlike in appearance the room of the house of commons. 
In the portico was a large room for the whole body of the 
assembly to hold conferences and bear prayers ; and at- one 
end was a lobby, and near it an office for the clerk of the council, 
and at the other end, over the hall of the burgesses, were several 
diambers for the different committees of the house — claims, 
privilges and elections. 

The four rooms in the garret of the east wing were appro- 
priated, one to the auditor, one to the secretary, one to the 
judge of the vice-admiralty, and one to the bishop of London's 
commissary. One of the four rooms in the garret of the west 



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The Capitol as it Appeared ABour 1830, 
1 Painting Owned by Mrs, Anni' Munford, of Richmond, Va. 



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2o8 Williamsburg, 

wing was for the use of the collectors' accounts and papers; 
another for the papers of the naval officers; a third for the 
attorney-general ; and the fourth for the sheriff attending the 
general court. 

Over the conference room were likewise four closets — one 
for the clerk of the general assembly, one for the clerk of the 
house of burgesses, and one for each of the two clerks of the 
committees. 

And finally, the attics in the roof were put in shape and ap- 
propriated for odds and ends. 

Instead of railing in the building, as was first intended, it 
was ordered by the assembly, in 1704, that the capitol should be 
enclosed with a good brick wall, two bricks thick, and four 
3nd a half feet high, distant sixty feet from the east and west 
ends of the building, and fifty feet from the north and south 
ends. The bounds of the capitol were made to include the 
pr'son grounds as far as the spring, and stones were sent for 
and set up to distinguish the public property.' 

On May 3, 1704, it was resolved by the general assembly 
that "the Virginia arms be sent for, and that they be set upp in 
the room where the house of burgesses sett." 

This building, though in reality by no means a pretentious 
structure, was the largest then in the colonies, and was pro- 
nounced by Hugh Jones "the best and most commodious Pile of 
its Kind that he had ever seen or heard of." It stood till 1746, 
when, like its predecessors at Jamestown, it fell a victim to 
the flames. 

The fire broke out in the eaves of the building, and was 
attributed by Governor Gooch to the "horrid machinations of 
desperate villians instigated by infernal madness." Fortunately, 
at the time the fire was discovered, the wind changed from the 
east to the northwest, and delayed the flames long enough for 
the clerks to remove the public records. 

The governor assembled the house of burgesses in special 
session and addressed them in a mournful speech. The idea 

'William and Mary Coll. Quarterly. X., 159-165; Hugh Jones, 
Present State of Virginia. 



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The Capitol. J09 

of removing the seat of government from Williamsburg was 
already popular, and the answer of the house of burgesses 
hinted at their intentions : "To lay the foundation of a new 
city, to raise the Building in a Place commodiously situated for 
Navigation, will compleat the glory of your administration, and 
transmit your name with the brightest Luster to the latest 
Ages ; with what pleasure then may we extend our Views thro' 
future centuries and anticipate the Happiness for Posterity." 

Accordingly, the question of rebuilding was considered 
by a committee, who reported in favor of removing the seat 
of government and against rebuilding the capitol in Williams- 
burg. This report was adopted by the house, and a bill was 
ordered to condemn 600 acres of land belonging to Richard 
Littlepage, near New Castle, on the Pamunkey River. It 
created much excitement, and on April 10, counsel for the city 
of Williamsburg was heard against the removal; notwithstand- 
ing which, the bill passed to its engrossment by a vote of 42 to 
34; and on the next day it passed its third reading by 44 to 20. 

But Williamsburg was saved by the council, who declined 
to consent to the bill, and on April 18, 1747, the general assem- 
bly adjourned, much bad feeling having been engendered. 

The assembly did not convene again till October 37, 1748, 
and, in the meantime, an unexpected circumstance helped the 
cause of Williamsburg. While the small-pox was raging in 
other parts of the colony, Williamsburg could point to a clean 
bill of health. Accordingly, Gooch, in his message, was flat- 
footed in favor of building on the old foundations, and on 
November 16, leave to introduce the original bill was defeated 
by a vote of 41 to 36. Thereupon, two days later, when Philip 
Ludwell asked permission to present a bill to erect the capitol in 
Williamsburg, the request was granted by 39 to 37, which was 
a great victory, but pretty close voting. However, great ex- 
citement prevailed at this time, and John Blair, of the council, 
standing in a group of friends, pointed to John Robinson, the 
speaker of the house, whose residence was on the Mattapony, 
not far from the Pamunkey, and said: "There goes the man 
who is at the bottom of this hellish scheme." This remark was 



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2IO Williamsburg, 

repeated to the house, who, considering it very insulting, com- 
plained to the council, of which Blair was a member.' He 
apologized, and there the matter ended. On April i, 1751, 
Blair had the satisfaction of laying a foundation brick at the 
new capitol.* and in December he laid the last top brick on the 
capitol wall. About fifty years before he laid a foundation brick 
of the first capitol." 

Mr. James Skelton had the oantract for the building, and 
the worlc was pushed so rapidly that, in less than two years' 
time, the capitol was again fit for occupation. It was described 
by Mr. Jefferson, in 1790, as follows : 

The only public buildings in the Colony worthy of mention are the 
capitol, the palace, the college, and the hospital for lunatics, all of them 
in Williamahurg, heretofore the seat of our government. The capitol is 
a light and airj structure, with a portico in front of two orders, the 
lower of which, being Doric, ie tolerably just in its proportions and orna- 
ments, save only that the intercolonnatlons are too large. The upper 
is Ionic, much too small for that on which it is mounted, its ornaments 
not proper to the order, nor proportioned within themselves. It is 
crowned with a pediment, which is too high for its span. Vet, on the 
whole, it is the most pleasing piece of architecture we have. 

After 1779, when the seat of government was removed to 
Richmond, the capitol building of Williamsburg served George 
Wythe, professor of law at the college, as a convenient place 
to hold his moot law courts and legislative sessions.* It after- 
wards served as a court house for the state and federal district 
courts. In 1794 an act of assembly authorized the pulling down 
of one-half, to defray the charge of keeping the other half in 
repair. At last, in 1832, it caught fire and was burned down, 
and has never been rebuilt. 

In 1840 a portion of the brick walls was used for the con- 
struction of a female academy, which was in use till the war 
of 1861-1865, when the school was discontinued; and after 
several years, the building and lot became the property of the 

'Journal of Home of Burgesses. 

' William and Mary Coll. Quarterly, VII., 158. 

>Ibid.. VIII., 16, 

'William, and Mary Coll. Quarterly, IX., 80. 



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\-- Oui Capitol. 



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212 Williamsburg, 

Old Dominion Land Company, who pulled the academy down 
and removed the bricks. In 1897 this company presented the 
site to the ladies of the Association for the Preservation of Vir- 
ginia Antiquities, and they have laid bare the ancient founda- 
tions of the capitol, and patriotically erected a monument with- 
in them. The inscription on the front of this monument com- 
memorates in the following language the more important deeds 
done on this historic spot : 

THE OLD CAPITOL. ■ . , ,, 

Here Patrick Henry flrat kindled the flames of revolution bj hia 
resolutions and speecb against the stamp act. May 29-30, 1765. 

Here March 12, 1773, Dabnej Carr offered, and the House of Bur- 
gesses of Virginia unanimouslj adopted, the resolutions to appoint a 
committee to correspond with similar committees in the other colonies — 
the first step taken towards the union of the States. 

■ Here May 15, 1776, the convention o( Virginia, through resolutions 
dr&fted by Edmund Pendleton, offered by Thomas Nelson, Jr., advocated 
by" Patrick Henry, unanimously called on Congress t* declare the col- 
onies free and independent States. 

Here June 12, 1776, was adopted by the conviention the immortal 
work of George Mason — the Declaration of Rights — and, on June 2B, 
1776, the first written constitution of a free and independent Stat« ever 
fHuned. 



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The Governor's House ok Palace. 

In 1705, during the administration of Edward Nott, the 
general assembly appropriated £3,000 for building a house for 
the governor, and a kitchen and stable. Henry Gary was made 
the supervisor of the work, and the house was erected upon 63 
acres of land, adjoining the city of Williamsburg, bought of 
Henry Tyler. The bricks used in the building were made near 
the spot by Henry Gary, above mentioned.' It was still 
incomplete in 1710, when Spotswood arrived. The general as- 
sembly then appropriated ir,s6o additional for the palace, and 
the further sum of £635, to provide a poultry house, cattle 
house, court-yard, flower garden, orchard, and kitchen garden. 
But these sums of money, though representing four times their 
figures in present values, were deemed insufficient, and in 1712 
the general asssembly appropriated £900 more. 

As finally erected, the palace was two stories high and 
measured 54 feet in length, by 48 feet in width from inside to 
inside. 

Its roof Avas of stone-slate, and there was a cupola upon it, 
which held a lantern capable of illuminating most of the town. 
The palace was handsomely ornamented within and without, 
and had fixtures and furniture imported from England. The 
court-yard was encompassed with a brick wall four feet high, 
mounted with balustrades, and the flower garden adjoining was 
254 feet by 144 feet, protected by a similar wall and balustrades. 

Sir John Randolph, in a communication to the Virginia 
Gasette, states that Spotswood, not long after his arrival, dis- 
charged Henry Gary, and undertook the supervision of the 
work himself, and made the palace cost upwards of i6,ooo* 

' Henry Gary was grandfather o( Colonel Archibald Gary, who, on 
May IB, 1776, reported the reflolutiona to the Virginia convention in 
(avor of independence. lie wai father of Henry Gary, who built the 
president's house and the chapel at the college. 

' Proliably equal to $100,000 in present vilues. 



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7ti4 Williamsburg, 

sterling, and might have made it cost more, had he been per- 
mitted by the assembly to go on wasting money. 

Of this palace, Rev. Hugh Jones, in 1723, gives an enthusi- 
astic account. It was a "magnificent structure, finished and 
beautified with gates, fine gardens, offices, walks, a fine canal, 
orchards, &c.," and in the building were "stands of the best 
arms, nicely posited by the ingenious contrivance of the most 
accomplished Colonel Spotswood." "Upon birthnights and at 
Balls and Assemblies, I have seen," says he, "as fine an ap- 
pearance, as good diversion and as splendid entertainment as 
I have seen anywhere else," 

In conformity with the charter of the college, the faculty 
was obliged to pay each year to the governor two copies of 
Latin verses every fifth of November, as quit rent for the land 
given them by King William and Queen Mary. There was 
always much ceremony at the palace when this anniversary 
came around, and, one occasion may be noticed. After Spots- 
wood returned from his romantic Ultramontane Expedilwn in 
1716, he instituted, in honor of his adventure, the order of the 
"Knights of the Horseshoe," he was waited on, at the cus- 
tomary time, by Rev. Arthur Blackamore, master of the gram- 
mar school, accompanied by Dr. Blair, and presented with some 
glowing verses in Latin, eulogizing his exploit among the 
mountains. The concluding lines, as translated by the Rev. 
George Seagood, of Maryland, were as follows r 

But then, to paint the Joys this Prospect breeds 

From shad; Growes, green Banks, and flow'ry Meads, 

And all the Beauties that this Par'dice yields. 

Be it His Task, who knows th' Elysian Fields. 

After the Hero pass'd the gentle Flood 

Thro' which directly went their niirey Road, 

Regardful of his Charge, he pausing stood : 

He thought, and stood resolved without Delay, 

Homewards to make hia retrogressive Way, 

Having for GEORGE his King, Possession took. 

And cut his Name in Ultramontane Rock. 

Obeying then the dictates of his Mind, 

He streight returned, and left this Scene behind; 

Where he, like Hercutet in former Day.f, 

Had made two Mountains, Pillars of his Praise. 



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Scene ii 

Showing the Ufficeit of the Qovernor. and the Saunders House 
to the left. 



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2i6 Williamsburg, 

Previous to the arrival of Sir William Gooch, the palace 
was overhauled, and made beautiful in fresh oil and paints, as 
is shown by the following extract from the proceedings of the 
council. May 2, 1727 : 

Ordered that Henry Gary and John Tyler, gentlemen, be appointed 
to view the Governor's House, and report that reparations are necea- 
■Ory therein, and the charge thereof, and that the same be forthwith 
set about. And it is further ordered that the great Dining Room and 
Parlor thereto adjoining, be new painted, the one of pearl color, the 
other of cream color; that the window frames, outer doora and eves be 
also new painted; that the pasture fence be put in repair, and that the 
laborers be hired to assist the gardener in putting the garden in good 

There is a notice in the Virginia Gazette for 1736 of a cele- 
bration of King George's birthday. Not only was there a ball 
at the governor's house, at which there was a handsome 
appearance of ladies, but cannon and guns were fired, and the 
town was illuminated. 

This governor's house, although interesting for its many 
associations, was not, however, the structure connected with 
the scenes of the revolutionary outburst. It was either added 
to, or pulled down entirely, and another building established 
on the same spot ; for the palace occupied by Fauquier, Bote- 
tourt and Dunmore was a much larger edifice than the first 
building, having a front, it seems, of 74 feet and a depth of 68. 
We are informed that when Governor Dinwiddle arrived in 
1751, a temporary residence was secured for his reception from 
Dr. Kenneth McKenzie,' which stood on the west side of the 

'The deed at Dr. Kenneth McKensie ftnd JoanuA Tyler, his wife 
(eldest sister of John Tyler, the marshal), conveys lots 333, 334, 335 
and 336 to Hon. Philip Qrymes, Esq., " his Majesty's Receiver Generall 
for the use of his Majesty's Lieutenant-Governor or Commander-in- 
chief." The house (now known as the "Saunders House"), temporarily 
occupied by Dinwiddie, stood on one of them, and it had, according to 
Dinwiddie, " three rooms besides the garret." In a rather belittling 
reference to Williamsburg by Dr. E. D. Neill, this temporary residence 
of Dinwiddie, is confounded with the Palace. See Neill's Macallester 
College Contribvtiom, Vol. III. 



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The Governor's House or Palace. 217 

palace street, very near the governor's house. It was a brick 
structure, and, in 1753, having served its purpose, was sold by 
the colony to Robert Carter Nicholas. It became afterwards 
the property of Robert Saunders, and its size was much 
increased by the addition of a wooden front with pillars. It is 
still standing, and is known as the "Saunders House." 

As rebuilt, the palace was flanked on either side by a small 
brick house — that on the right being the office of the governor ; 
and that on the left, the guard house. 

The grounds belonging to the palace comprised 360 acres, 
and they were beautifully laid out with carriage roads winding 
through them. Numerous lindens were imported from Scot- 
land and planted in the grounds, and near the house was a 
large pond, full of choice fish. 

On the walls of the great reception room of the palace in 
Botetourt's time were portraits of the king and queen, and it 
seems that here, as well as in the council room of the old capitol. 
was transacted much of the public business of the colony. The 
elegance and attractions of this society of the colony were rec- 
ognized by Fauquier, Botetourt and the other governors, and 
they gave frequent and sumptuous entertainments to the bur- 
gesses. On the king's birthday or other festal occasions, they 
held, like royalty, their "drawing-room" receptions, and re- 
ceived their subjects superbly, standing under the portraits of 
the king and queen. 

One interruption only is- afforded to this picture, and that 
is after Lord Dunmore removed the powder from the colonial 
magazine; the palace appears at that time in the disagreeable 
light of a fortress, guarded against the irruption of the out- 
raged Virginians. It was reported that his excellency had arms 
arranged in rooms on the floor, ready to do execution on any 
inconsiderate rebel who assaulted him. Not long after he fled 
with his lady from the palace, never to return, and royalty went 
with him. 

In 1781, during its occupancy by some American troops, 
immediately after the surrender of Cornwailis at Yorktown, 
the palace was accidentally burned. 



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2l8 WiLLIAMSBUHG, 

The two brick houses at the side stood till the war of 1861- 
1865, when they were pulled down by federal troops to furnish 
chimneys for the huts of the officers at Fort Magruder. These 
houses had two large rooms on the ground floor, with two 
garret rooms above, and were each large enough to provide 
comfortable quarters for a small family. 

There is now standing on the site of the palace a brick 
structure, erected in 1867 out of the money left for a free 
school by Mrs. Mary Whaley, who died in 1742. The story of 
this benefaction is romantic.'" After the collapse of Bacon's 
rebellion, in 1676, Richard Lawrence, Thomas Whaley and 
John Forth, three of Bacon's friends, fled to the woods "in 
snow ankle deep," and were never heard of again. But Thomas 
Whaley left in York County a son, James Whaley, who became 
a prominent merchant and justice of the peace. He married 
Mary Page, daughter of Matthew Page and niece of Colonel 
John Page. They had an only son, Matthew, who died -while a 
child. Therefore, "to eternalize Mattey's name forever," as 
she expressed it in her will, Mrs. Whaley established a free 
school on the east side of Queen Mary's road, leading to the 
capitol landing (Queen Mary's port), very near the present 
railroad bridge. Mrs. Whaley's buildings consisted of a school 
house, the master's house, and a stable. She removed to Lon- 
don and. in 1742, died there leaving a considerable legacy to 
her school. 

But the executor would not pay the money over, and the 
church wardens of Bruton church in Williamsburg, who had 
charge of the school, brought suit. Chancery suits are pro- 
verbially slow, and this remained undisposed of when the 
American revolution came on. During that great contest it was 
forgotten, and not long after the peace, the school property on 
Queen Mary's road was sold by the overseers of the poor. An 
English lawyer called attention to the suit in 1859, but it was 
not till 1867 that the legacy of Mrs. Whaley found its way across 
the Atlantic. The college authorities agreed to discharge the 
trust of the will, and the English high court of chancery gener- 

'" See William and Mary Coll. Quart., IV., 3-15. 



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Touu8TONe OF Mattey \\']{ALt:y in liiuiTON Chukciiyakd. 



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220 Williamsburg, 

ously turned the fund over to them. The principal originally 
was only a few hundred pounds, but it had been bearing interest 
all that time, and when handed over, amounted to about $8,000, 
exclusive of lawyer's fees and expenses, which were consider- 
able. The palace lots had come into the hands of the college by 
this time, and the authorities used most of the fund to erect 
upon the site of the palace the brick house mentioned, and in it 
they now maintain "The Matthew Whaley Observation and 
Practice School," in connection with the normal course of the 
college. Nearby, in the churchyard, may be read this inscrip- 
tion: 

MATTHEW WHALES' lyea Interred here 
Within this Tomb upon his Father dear, 
Who Departed 
This Life the ZQth of 
September 1705, Aged 
Nine jeara, only child 
of JAMES WHALEY 
and MARY, hia wife. 

The "old palace" stood on the north side of the city, at the 
head of a street 210 feet wide, which crossed the main street, 
near the center of the town. This street has been turned into 
a green called "Palace Green," and on each side is a street 
about thirty feet wide. 

In the rear of the palace is a large mound, which has a deep 
wall of brick, supposed to have been " Lord Dunmore's wine- 
cellar." 



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The State Prison. 

By an act passed in August, 1701, a brick prison was erected 
at the east end of Williamsburg for the use of the colony. It 
was ordered to be 30 feet Ipng and 20 feet wide in the clear. 
There were three rooms on the lower floor, of which the two 
small ones were for the confinement of prisoners of the two 
sexes respectively, and the third and larger room, together with 
the chambers overhead, was for the jailer and his family. At 
one end was built a wall ten feet high, enclosing, for the recrea- 
tion of the prisoners, an area of ground twenty feet square. 

The brick building stood adjoining the capitol grounds, and 
was quaintly described by Mr, Jones "as a strong, sweet 
Prison," near which rose also "a debtor's prison," though it 
rarely had occupants, "the creditors in Virginia being very 
merciful." Within this prison first named were confined the 
associates of Black-Beard, the pirate, who were executed on the 
road to Capitol Landing Creek in 1718. Here also, by the 
order of the council, was kept in shackles, (because of his crime 
in inciting the Indians to murder and pillage), Henry Hamil- 
ton, governor-general of Detroit (called "the scalp taker"), 
who was captured by (ieneral George Rogers Clark at 
Vincennes, in the Illinois territory, February 24, 1779, and 
sent over-land to Williamsburg. 

After the removal of the capital to Richmond, the state 
prison was made use of by Williamsburg and James City 
County for a jail. It continued in use till the war (1861-1865), 
when a great part of this old building was pulled down by the 
federal soldiers. After hostilities ceased, it was partially re- 
stored. Like all the old prisons, however, it was a comfortless, 
insecure structure, and recently a new building, with steel 
cages and some modern comforts, has been erected for the 
city jail, on the old market square, convenient to the present 
court-house. 



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Powder Magazine. 

In ordfer to protect the arms and ammunition of the colony 
sent over by Queen Anne's government, the general assembly of 
Virginia, in 1714, was induced by Governor Spolswood to erect 
a magazine at a cost not exceeding £200. It was made of brick 
in the Flemish bond, had octagonal sides, and tapered to a pijint 
like a powder horn, by which name it is sometimes called. It 
was located cwi the public square, in the centre of England 
street. Its massive walls have a thickness of 22 inches, anil it 
was surrounded "by a brick enclosure about 10 feet high, also 
octagonally shaped, and having parallel sides distant 21 feet 
from the sides of the magazine. 

The building was placed in charge of a "keeper" and an 
"armourer," who each received a salary of £20. 

This building became historic when Lord Dumnore, the 
day after the battle of Lexington, removed from it the pOwder 
to the Magdalene armed schooner, stationed in Jamts river, at 
Burwell's Ferry, about six miles from Williamsburg, which 
arbitrary act threw the whole of Virginia into a ferment and 
occasioned the first assemblying of an armed force in the 
colony in opposition to royal authority. It is, therefore, con- 
sidered as the "boiling point" of revolution in Virginia. 

After the peace in 1783, the magazine had a chequered and 
varied experience. It was first used as a market house; then, 
when the Baptists organized in Williamsburg, it served them 
as a meeting house. When the present Baptist church of Doric 
architecture was erected in 1855, the brick wall around the 
magazine was pulled down to provide the foundations. After 
this the magazine served two years for a dancing school. In 
1861 it once more resumed its original character, and became 
an arsenal under the confederates. After the war it was sold 
by the town authorities, without much shadow of right, and 



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Powder Magazine. 223 

became a stable. From this degrading service it was rescued 
ir 1890 by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia 
Antiquities, who purchased it of its owner, repaired its walls, 
and converted it into a museum. 



Powder Magazine, as it obigisally appeared- 
(The building to tlie right is tlie Uright Houhc, now burned.) 



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The Theatre. 

The first recorded notice of a play performed in any part of 
the present United States occurs in the Accomack County, Va., 
records for 1665. In that year several persons were reported 
to the court for acting a play called "Ye Bare & ye Cubb." 

That the court might judge of the propriety of their con- 
duct, the actors were required to appear in their play costumes 
and repeat the verses and speeches of the play. They did so, 
and tht;.iX)urt finding nothing objectionable, dismissed the 
actors and ordered the busy informant to pay all costs. 

After this, although the records of the colony are silent, 
it is not to be supposed that there were not frequent plays at ■ 
Jamestown under the rule of Sir William Berkeley, himself a 
play writer and a frequenter of the theatre in London. The 
fact that in 1702 "a pastoral colloquy" was recited by the 
scholars of William and Mary College before the governor in 
Williamsburg is indicative of an active interest felt by the 
Virginia people in such things, which doubtless was manifested 
in frequent but unreported exhibitions on the theatrical boards. 

At length, in 1716, when Williamsburg, to which the seat 
of government had been removed, in 1699, from Jamestown, 
had taken on something of the appearance of a town, there 
arrived the first regular "backer" of a regular theatrical busi- 
ness. This was William Levingston, who, for some time 
previous, had been managing, in New Kent County, a peri- 
patetic dancing school, in which the "star" dancers were 
Charles Stagg and his wife Mary. 

There is a contract recorded at Yorktown, dated July ir, 
1716, by which William Levingston merchant, agrees with 
Charles and Mary Stagg, his wife, "actors," to build a theatre 
in Williamsburg, and to provide actors, scenery, and music out 
of England, "for the enacting of comedies and tragedies in 
said city." 

On November 21, 1716, William Levingston purchased 



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The Theatre. 225 

three half-acre lots,- 163, 164 and 169, and erected thereon a 
dwelling house, kitchen and stable. He laid out also a bowling 
alley and built a theatre, and purchased an acre more (lots 176 
and 177) for a garden.' We have good reason to suppose; 
then, that the play which Alexander Spotswood mentions as 
acted before him on his majesty's birthday, in 1718; was per- 
formed in this theatre, and by Charles Stagg and his company. 
In his description of Williamsburg, in 1722, Rev. Hugh Jones 
says: "Not far from hence (t. e., the church and James City 
County court-house) is a large area for a market place, near 
which is a play-house and a good bowling green." 

Mr. Stagg died in Williamsburg in 1735, and his wife sur- 
vived him. From the Virginia Gazette in 1736 we learn that 
after the death of her husband, she earned her living by holding 
dancing "assemblies." She had a rival in Mrs. Barbara de 
Graffenreidt, a daughter-in-law of Count Christopher de Graf- 
fenreidt, who founded Newborn in North Carolina. The ad- 
mission fee to these assemblies was high — half a pistole or 
about $1.90 — making them rather select affairs. 

In the issue of the Gasette for September 10, 1736, as shov*'- 
ing' that the theatrical spirit still prevailed, appeared an adver- 
tisement, that that evening the "young Gentlemen of the Col- 
lege" would perform at the theatre the "tragedy of Cato," and 
that on Monday, Wednesday and Friday next would be acted 
by the "gentlemen and ladies of this country" "The Busy 
Body," "The Recruiting Officer," and the "Beaux Strategem." 

A little later, in the Gazette for October 22. there is this 
mock advertisement : 

ADVERTISEMFNT.— WhereBB b Gpntleman Who towards the latter 
«nd of the Summer usually wore a Blue Camlet coat lined with Red and 
trimmed with Silver, a silver laced hat and a Turpee wig, has often been 
observed by his Amoret, to look very languish i ugly at her, the said 
Amoret, and particularly one night during the last Beasion at Assembly, 
»t the Theatre, the said Gentleman ogled her in such a manner as ahewed 
liim to be very far gone, tlje aaid Amoret desires the QenOeman to ta|ce 
the flrst handsome opportunity that ofTers to explain hinistlf on that 
subject.— N. B. She believes that he has very pretty teeth. 

' York '^ountr Records. 



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226 Williamsburg, 

This public notice was doubtless a great joke directed against 
the town dude, whoever be was. 

The York County records enable us to follow very accurately 
the fortune of this oldest play-house in America. 

On May 29, 1721, Mr. Levingston mortgaged the lots on 
which it stood to Dr. Archibald Blair for 500 years, and as he 
defaulted in the payment, Blair brought an ejectment suit, and 
on December 16, 172,1, was granted a writ of habere facias 
possessionem. On February 20, 173S, John Blair, executor of 
Archibald Blair, conveyed the property to Dr. George Gilmer 
for 155 pounds; and the latter, some time after, for 50 pounds, 
sold the play-house, and "six feet all round" to a stock company 
consisting of thirty-one of the first men of the colony. What 
this colony did in the way of promoting theatrical enjoyment, 
we may never know, as we have no newspapers from 1738 till 
1751. The deed books at Yorktown state, however, that in 1745 
the theatre "had not been put to any use for several years;" 
and in that year, on the humble supplication of the city authori- 
ties, the building was surrendered by the shareholders for a 
town hall. 

Dr. George Gilmer had his drug store and residence in the 
house built by William Levingston, and this property, with the 
lots, exclusive of the theatre and six feet around it, was sold 
to Thomas Knox, who, in 1764, conveyed them to John Taze- 
well. After the new court-house was built in 1770, the mayor, 
recorder, aldermen and common council sold to Tazewell their 
interest in the lots "whereon the Play-house stood." William 
Levingston, who had the outstanding fee after the expiration of 
the 500 years, died without issue, and Tazewell, by patenting 
his rights, became possessed of the whole title. In 1779 he sold 
the lots to Edmund Randolph, who, in a short time, disposed of 
them to Judge St. George Tucker, and they are now owned by 
his granddaughter, Mrs. Cynthia Beverley Tucker Coleman. 
It is probable that portion of the old residence now standing 
on these lots was the original TLsidence of William Levingston. 
The year 1751 saw a revival of interest in the drama in Wil- 
liamsburg. A -company of comedians, who had been playing 



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AnVBHTlSEMBNT IN THE VttHitMA GAZICTTK OF TlIK MGUC^ICANT OF VENICE. 



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228 Williamsburg, 

for the previous two years in New York and Philadelphia, 
gave notice in the Gazette for August 29, 1751, of their inten- 
tion to visit Williamsburg and build a play-house there. Two 
lots on the "eastern side of Eastern street" (Waller street), 
just back of the capitol, were selected for this purpose, and on 
them the new play-house was erected. In the deed dated 
September 2, 1751, to Alexander Finnie, keeper of the Raleigh 
Tavern, who acted as agent for the company, these lots are 
numbered as 21 and 22 on the plan of land added to the city 
in 1756 by Benjamin Waller.' 

The managers of this company were Charles Somerset 
Woodham, Walter Murray and Thomas Kean. They opened 
the season in the cj'ony on October 21, 1751, with the tragedy 
of "King Richard the Third." They remained in Virginia till 
the following June, playing at various places, Williamsburg, 
Norfolk. Petersburg, Hobbes' Hole ( Tappahannock) and Fred- 
ericksburg. The prices of admission in Williamsburg were: 
Boxes, 7 shillings, six pence ; pit, 5 shillings, 9 pence ; and gal- 
lery, 3 shillings, 9 pence. During the period of their stay in the 
colony much festivity prevailed- 

Not long after their arrival. Governor Ogle, of Maryland, 
and his secretarj' of state, Edmund Jenings, Esq., visited Wil- 
liamsburg. And a little later, arrived the new governor of 
\'irginia, Hon. Robert Dinwiddie, with his wife and daughters. 
The event was celebrated with music and feasting. The pro- 
fessors at the college caught the infection of gaiety, and there 
is this entry in the diary of John Blair, November 16 (1751) : 
"This evening Mr. Preston (professor of moral philosophy), 
to prevent the young gentlemen at the allege from trying at a 
rehearsal in the dormitory how they could act 'Cato' privately 
among themselves, did himself act the "Drunken Peasant,' but 
his tearing down the curtains is to me very surprising." 

What a curious age, when young ladies, who would have 
thought it highly improper to have gone out after dark with 
a young man, without papa or mamma, attended the plays 
written by Wycherley, Congreve and Farquhar; and grave 

* Tbe plan of these lots is attached la the deed recorded at Yorktowu. 



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The Theatre. 239 

professors, with ministerial coats, saw no impropriety in acting 
in public the part of an intoxicated boor. 

Within two weeks after the departure of this company from 
Virginia, arrived from London "the London Company of 
Comedians.". It is said to have been the first regular company 
of playwrights who ever came from England. The visit to 
America was prospected by William Hallam, the son of Adam 
Hallam, an actor once famihar to the London public. His 
mother-in-law was the famous Mrs. Hallam, who had played 
at Covent Garden. William Hallam himself was manager of 
the "New Theatre in Goodmanfields, London." He did not 
come to Virginia, but his brother, Lewis Hallam, Sr., repre- 
sented him as manager. 

On their arrival in Williamsburg Lewis Hallam obtained 
from Alexander Finnie a transfer of the lots on which the 
play-house stood and altered it, (as their notices in the news- 
papers state) into "a regular theatre, fit for the reception of 
ladies and gentlemen." This building was a homely wooden 
structure, resembling a tobacco barn, and stood on the edge of 
the woods, which then came close up to Eastern or Waller 
street.* 

On the first Friday in September, 1752, they opened the 
season with "the Merchant of Venice." The prologue * spoken 
by Mr. Rigby, is said to to have been the first ever spoken in 
America, and was composed on shipboard by Mr. Singleton, 
another of the company. During this visit, little Lewis Hallam, 
son of the manager, afterwards the star of the American stage, 
made his first appearance before an American public. He was 
then a boy of twelve years, and having only one line to say, was 
so frightened that he remained speechless, till, bursting into 
tears, he rushed off the stage. 

At a performance given November 9, 1752, the "emperor" 
and "empress" of the Cherokee nation and their son were 
present. On this occasion "Othello" and a pantomime com- 

' Dunlap, dmerican Theatre. 

'William and Mary Coll. Quart., XIII., 0. 



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230 Williamsburg, 

prised the bill. During the performance the Indian empress 
was so alarmed at the fighting with naked swords on the stage, 
that she ordered one of her attendants to go and prevent the 
actors from killing each other. 

The next day Mr. Lewis Hallam, Sr., the manager, ap- 
peared in a new role. Being the anniversary of the king's 
birthday, there was a very splendid and elegant entertainment 
at the palace, where the Indian guests and a great company of 
ladies and gentlemen were present. Mr. Hallam had charge 
of some beautiful fire-worics exhibited in the streets before the 
governor's house. The chief musician in Williamsburg about 
this time was Cuthbert Ogle, whose inventor)'* of effects 
shows a fine collection of sonatas and concertos by English 
composers^ and many books of Handel's songs and oratorios. 
He was succeeded by Peter Pelham, the organist of Bniton 
church. 

There were, however, some bad people in Williamsburg, 
even in those good old days. On the night of December i, 
1752, the play-house was broken open by a white man and two 
negroes, who dangerously injured a servant of the company 
by impaling him upon the iron spikes of the theatre, where he 
hung for a considerable time. 

The Hallam company remained in the colony eleven months, 
performing with "universal applause," and then they went to 
New York. After this time plays and players were very fre- 
quent in Virginia. Indeed, nowhere in America during the 
colonial period did the dramatic muse receive a more enthusias- 
tic welcome. Rev. Samuel Davies arraigned the colony in 
1755 on the ground that "Plays and R<Mnances" were "more 
read than the history of the blessed Jesus." 

In 1768 Williamsburg was very gay. There was no end of 
dinner parties, music and dancing- Pe>-ton Randolph gave a 
dinner at the Raleigh Tavern, which was the talk of the whole 
province. Elegant receptions were held by the governor at his 
"palace" in Williamsburg, where the ladles and gentlemen 
appeared in brilliant court costumes. 

•TTtiiiam ant Uary Coll. Quarterly, 111., 251. 



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The Theatre. 231 

In the early part of this year (1768), the "Virginia Com- 
pany of Comedians" gave a season of two months, and on May 
2, Washington, who was very fond of theatre-going, wrote in 
his daily records of "where and how my time is spent," that 
"he went to Williamsburg with Colo. Bassett, Colo. Lewis, and 
Mr. Dick. Dined with Mrs. Dawson — and went to th« Play." 
This is only one of many similar references to hours spent by 
Washington at the theatre. 

Of all these years of social pleasure, the year 1771 was the 
most full in dramatic enjoyment. After the close of a season 
in Philadelphia, the Hallam company, which had experienced 
many changes, reappeared in Williamsburg, under the name of 
the "American Company of Comedians." Lewis Hallam was 
now at his best, and his main support was his cousin, Miss 
Sarah Hallam. This young lady, previous to her appearance 
in Virginia, had evoked unlimited praise from the poets of 
Maryland, who compared her face unto Cytherea's, and her 
form with Diana's. As a tribute to her beauty and art, Charles 
Wilson Peale had painted her portrait in her role of Imogene. 
There is a letter" of Colonel Hudson Muse, of Virginia, which 
states that he went to the play in Williamsburg "every night 
for eleven nights," and found Miss Hallam "superfine." The 
diary of General Washington shows that he was a constant at- 
tendant at the theatre in Williamsburg during this season. 

At these entertainments, Peter Pelham, the organist of 
Bruton church, furnished the musical accompaniments. 

Sarah Hallam, the beautiful actress, lived afterwards for 
many years in Williamsburg, where she taught dancing and had 
a fashionable boarding school for young ladies.' 

The American revolution suspended theatrical engagements 
everywhere, and after the transfer of the seat of government of 
Virginia to Richmond in 1779, Williamsburg became a quiet 
college village, and was seldom visited by "star actors." Like 
its predecessor on the Palace Green, the theatre by the capitol 
has long since disappeared. 

' William and Mary Quarterly, II., 239. 
'Ibid., XII., 230. 



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The Raleigh TavErn. 

This was a large wooden building, which occupied lot 54 on 
the north side of the Duke of Gloucester Street, between Bote- 
tourt Street and the capitol. It was two stories in height, lit 
by eight dormer windows. A leaden bust of Sir Walter 
Raleigh stood in a niche over the front door. 

It was probably built by Dr. Archibald Blair, to whom it 
belonged, before 1735. Probably Henry Wetherbum was the 
first to keep ordinary in the building, as there is a 
curious deed recorded in Goochland County, and dated 1736, 
whereby William Randolph, of Tuckahoe, in that county, sells 
200 acres of land to Peter Jefferson (father of Thomas Jeffer- 
son), for the quaint consideration of Henry Wetherbum's 
"biggest bowl of arrack punch." 

In 1742 Dr. Blair sold the property to a company consisting 
of John Dixon, David Meade, Patrick Barclay, Alexander Mc- 
Kenzie and James Murray, but it appears that the ordinary 
was still kept by Henry Wetherbum.' 

In 1749 John Dixon & Co. sold the Raleigh Tavern to Alex- 
ander Finnic, who kept the ordinary till August, 1752, when 
he sold the property for 700 i, Virginia currency, to Colonel 
John Chiswell and Dr. George Gilmer. 

It passed afterwards to William Trebell, and he, in 1767, 
sold the Raleigh Tavern to Anthony Hay, a wealthy cabinet 
maker. - . 

It was while Anthony Hay controlled the tavern that the 
first incident occurred which gave it an historic character. In 

■Henry -Wetherbum "married July 11, 1751. Anne Shields, daughter 
ot Jean -Marot, a French Huguenot. She married (1) Jatnes Tnglis, son 
at Mungo Inglia, first grammar master of William and Mary College; 
(2) James Shields; (3) Henry Wetherljurn. Both Jean Marot and 
Jamea Shields kept ordinary. Mrs. Shields' daughter by the second 
fiusbalid was Anne Shields, who married Robert Armist«ad, of York 
county, and they were grandparents of President John Tyler. 



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234 Williamsburg, 

February, 1769, parliament advised the king to transport per- 
sons accused of treason in America for trial in Great Britain. 
Upon receiving intelligence of this measure, the burgesses of 
Virginia passed warm resolutions, denouncing it. Lord Bote- 
tourt, who was then governor, at once diss(rived the assembly, 
and the burgesses repaired in a body to the Raleigh Tavern, 
and in the room called "the Apollo," adopted a non-importation 
agreement. 

Anthony Hay was the father of the famous lawyer, Geoi^e 
Hay,' who prosecuted Aaron Burr. He died in 1772, and the 
Raleigh Tavern was sold by his executor to James Barret 
Southall. 

In 1774 when Lord Dunmore dissolved the assembly for 
making an indignant protest against the act of parliament, 
shutting up the port of Boston, and setting June i, as a day of 
fast, the burgesses repaired to the Raleigh and adopted resolu- 
tions against the use of tea and other East India commodities. 

On December 5, 1776, the Phi Beta Kappa Society was 
organized at the tavern, and annually afterwards, till its sus- 
pension in 1781, it held its meetings there in the Apollo, 

The Apollo was the main room in the tavern, and the word 
means "a banqueting room," such as Lucullus had in his 
stately villa. It was well lit, having a deep fireplace, on each 
side of which a door opened, with carved wainscoting beneath 
the windows and above the mantelpiece. Over the mantel- 
piece and near the cornice was a Latin motto, Hihntas sapi- 
entiae et bonae vitae proles (mirth is the offspring of wisdom 
and a good life.) This room witnessed probably more scenes of 
brilliant festivity and political excitement than any other single 
apartment in North America. Sir William Gooch, and perhaps 
even Spotswood, were familiar with this old apartment. Din- 
widdie and Botetourt, on their arrival in Virginia, supped here 
in state, and, with the advent of the Revolution, it grew sud- 
denly popular as a meeting place of the patriots. It had long 
been used for balls and assemblies, and in 1764 we find Jeffer- 

' George Hay married Eliza, daaght«r of Preaident James Monroe. 



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The Raleigh Tavern. 235 

son, then a gay young man, studying in the law office of George 
Wythe, writing from "DevJIsburg," as he called Williamsburg, 
that he was as happy on the night before as "dancing with 
Belinda in the Apollo could make him," This ancient room 
saw indeed, at one time or another, all that was brilliant and 
graceful in the Virginia society of the eighteenth century. 

The Raleigh Tavern continued the place for all extraordi- 
nary meetings, balls, banquets, &c., in Williamsburg for three- 
quarters of a century later. It was burned in 1859. 

The brick store of L. W. Lane & Son occupies at present 
its ancient site. The pedestal on which the bust of Sir Walter 
Raleigh sat over the entrance is still preserve<l. 



4 TtIB Kalekiii Tavckn. 



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The Printing Office.' 
This was a small wooden building on lot 48, on the north 
side of Duke of Gloucester Street. It was standings as late as 
March, 1896, when it was destroyed by fire, along with several 
other old wooden bowses adjoining. In the ashes were found 
some old type. The first printer was William Parks, who issued 
from this office the first copy of the Virginia Gazette, August 6, 
1736. This first Virginia paper was a sheet about twelve inches 
by six inches, and was published at 15 shillings per annum. 
William Parks, the editor, printed in Williamsburg, in 1729, 
"The Laws of Virginia," in 1736, the charter and laws of Wil- 
liam and Mary College, and in 1749 the History of Virginia by 
William Stith. He died in 1750, and William Hunter, deputy- 
postmaster-general under Benjamin Franklin, revived the. paper 
in February, 1751. He died in August, 1761. 

The paper was then enlarged and published by Joseph 
Royle, Hunter's brother-in-law. Joseph Royle died in 1766, 
and Alexander Purdie succeeded him, Purdie formed a part- 
nership with John Dixon, who married the widow of Joseph 
Royle. This partnership continued till December, 1774, when 
John Dixon formed a partnership with William Hunter, sort 
of the first William Hunter. In 1779 Thomas Nicholson was 
a partner in place of William Hunter in the publication of the 
Virginia Gazette. In April, 1780, the editors of this paper 
(Dixon and Nicholson) removed their office to Richmond, 
where John Dixon died in 1791, very much esteemed. 

In 1766, at the instance of Thomas Jefferson and other pa- 
triots, William Rind established a second Gazette in Williams- 
burg, which championed the popular cause. He was printer to 
the cobny and died in 1773, after which his paper was carried 
on by his widow, Clementina Rind till her death, two years 
later, when the paper was published by John Pinkney, who 
soon moved to North Carolina, and died there in 1777. 

' See "Old Virginia Editors" in William and Mary Qou. Qwtrt., 



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The Printing Office. 237 

In 1775, there were three Virginia Gasettes published in 
Williamsburg, the two above named, and a third by Alexander 
Purdie, who had dissolved partnership with John Dixon.* 
He became printer for the State in 1775, and died in 1779. He 
was succeeded by his apprentice and nephew, John Qarkson, 
who formed a co-partnership with Augustine Davis. They 
were printers to the state in 1779. The same year Davis re- 
moved to Richmond, where, as editor of the Virginia Gazette, 
he was the first, editor of a newspaper in that place. John 
Adams, appoititcd him postmaster of Richmond. 

Afjer.the removal of the capital to Richmond, a Gazette was 
published ip Williamsburg from time to time. Just before the 
war, (1861-1865), Mr. E. H. Lively published a paper under 
that name, During the war the federal troops seized the print- 
ing office and published a paper called The Williamsburg CavOr 
Her. After the war, Mr. B. F. Long published the Virginia 
Gazette, which was revived by Mr. W. C. Johnston in 1893, 
and is still continued. 

At the printing office on lot 48 was the post-office and 
Look-store, which last contained an excellent collection of 
the best books on all kinds of subjects. 

'Dixon and Hunter's appeared every Saturday; Pinkney's every 
Wednesday and Saturday ; and Purdie's every Friday, 



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XI. 

Williamsburg Jail. 
Until 1744 the city had no jail of its own, but used the 
James City County jail, near the James City court-house, at 
the southwest .comer of England and Francis streets. In that 
year the general assembly passed an act, authorizing the town 
hall to levy a tax for the building of a jail of its own "for the 
commitment of debtors, criminals and offenders." This house 
was erected on the old market square, and has been recently 
restored by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia 
Antiquities. After the removal of the seat of government, the 
city made use of the public prison at the east end, which was 
of much greater capacity. 



WiLLiAMSBUEG Jail, erected i 



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James City County Coubt-House. 

Notwithstanding the removal, in 1699, of the capital of the 
colony to Williamsburg, Jamestown remained for several years 
the seat of the court-house for James City County, In 1705 a 
new court-house was buih at Jamestown out of bricks from 
the walls of the ruined state house. In 1715 Williamsburg was 
mad« the county seat, and soon after a county court-house and 
prison were erected on the market square, near the powder 
magazine, at the southwestern corner of England and Francis 
streets. 

After the present court-house on the main street was erected 
in 1770, the James City County court-house was sold to Robert 
Carter Nicholas, and served for many years as an office to a 
large building, which was the residence, in 1837, of John Tyler 
and afterwards of Samuel F. Bright.^ Not many years ago 
this old court-house was pulled down, but its massive chimney 
still stands — a picturesque relic of the past. It should be pre- 
served. 



' The "Bright Ilouue" was destroyed by fire, in 1 



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County and City Court-House. 

Till 1745 the city authorities used the James City court- 
house for a town hall, having no building of their own. In that 
year "the Gentlemen subscribers for the Play House," on the 
corner of Nicholson street and the Palace Green, gave to the 
city their theatre building, erected in 1716 by William Leving- 
ston. This building was used for 24 years, when the fcJlowing 
notice appeared in the Virginia Gazette, Williamsburg,- March 
16,1769: 

Th« ComiDon Hall having this day determined to build a commodious 
brick court-house in this citf and having; appointed us to agree with and 
undertake to build the Bame, we do hereby give notice that we shall meet 
at Mr. Hay's' on Tuesday, the 4th of April, to let the building thereof; 
we are also appointed to dispose of the present court-house, and the 
ground on which the same stands. James Cocke, James Carter, John 
Carter, John Tazewell. 

At the session in 1770, the general assembly added a part of 
the market square on the north of Duke of Gloucester Street, 
then in the county of York, to the county of James City, and 
upon this tract the county of James City and the city of Wil- 
liamsburg erected a brick court-house at their joint expense. 

The proportions of this building have often been admired. 
The present stone steps were imported^ from England in 1772, 
and their receipt is acknowledged by President William Nelson 
in a letter copied into his letter book, at present in the library 
of the Episcopal Seminary near Alexandria. The court-house 
building is still standing, and is regularly used for the original 
purposes of its erection. Probably about the same time the 
brick clerk's office, which stood near the magazine, was erected. 
This building was pulled down by federal soldiers during the 
late war, and the bricks removed to Fort Magruder, 

' Mr. Hay Iwpt the Raleigh Tavern. 

' William and Marg Coll. Quart., VII., 29. 



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U CITT COURT-HoUSE, 



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Hospital for the Insane. 

In 1766 four persons of disordered mind were held in con- 
finement in the public jail in Williamsburg, and on November 
6, Governor Francis Fauquier recommended to the general as- 
sembly the establishment of a hospital for the insane.. The as- 
sembly took the matter up and ordered a bill to be introduced, 
but it was three years before it passed into law. In the mean- 
time the four unfortunates in Williamsburg were committed to 
the custody of a private asylum in Philadelphia. At the session 
of 1769-1770, the general assembly appointed "John Blair. Wil- 
liam Kelson, Thomas Nelson, Robert Carter, and Peyton Ran- 
dolph, esquires, and Robert Carter Nicholas, John Randolph, 
Benjamin Waller, John Blair, Jr., George Wythe, Dudley 
Digges, Jr., Lewis Burwell, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Thomas Ever- 
ard and John Tazewell, esquires," trustees for the founding of 
a public hospital "for the reception of idiots, lunatics, and other 
persons of unsound mind." This institution was the first of its 
kind in the United States. 

Four acres on the south of Francis street were purchased 
of Dr. Thomas Walker, of Albemarle County, the distinguished 
explorer, and upon this lot Benjamin Powell contracted to erect 
a large brick building for ir,o7o. The plans and specifications, 
which were furnished by Robert Smith, of Philadelphia, April 
9, 1770, provided for a hall, a staircase, and behind them a 
keeper's apartment and twelve other rooms, "chiefly for the 
reception of mad people." There was a second story also, with 
twelve rooms, and a room over the keeper's room for the ses- 
sions of the "court of directors." 

The bricks were made near the spot, but the stone steps to 
the building were imported from England, 

On Tuesday, September 14, 1773, the Honorable Thomas 
Nelson, Esq., called a meeting of the court of directors to in- 
form them tliat the hospital was completed, and thereupon 



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1^ 

I; 

I! 

i 



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244 WiLLIAMSDURG, 

James Gait was appointed keeper or superintendent. On Oc- 
tober 12, 1773, the first person of unusual mind was admitted, 
and at this court Dr. John de Sequeyra was appointed physician 
to the hospital. 

There is a book preserved containing the proceedings of 
the court of directors from the foundation of the hospital till 
the year 1801. From this I glean the following facts in addi- 
tion to what has been already stated. The presidents of the 
court of directors during the interval were John Blair, 1769- 
1773; William Nelson, 1771-1772; General Thomas Nelson, 
1772-1786; Dudley Digges, 1786-1788; Rev. James Madison, 
1788-1790; Rev. John Bracken, 1790-1791 ; Rev. Doctor James 
Madison, 1791-1801. 

Doctor John i\t Sequeyra' was succeeded in 1793 by Doc- 
tors John Minson Gait and Philip Barraud, who were physi- 
cians to the hospital. November r, 1794, Joseph Hornsby re- 
signed as treasurer of the hospital. At this time the hospital 
contained thirty inmates, several of them negroes. Among the 
new directors appointed after the first meeting of the court were 
John Camm, John Blair, Jr., Dr. James Blair, Robert Andrews, 
James Innis, Henry Tazewell, Nathaniel Burwell, John Dixon, 
Joseph Prentis, John C. Byrd, Benjamin Carler Waller, Robert 
Saunders, Robert H. Waller, Champion Travis, Robert Green- 
how, Cyrus Griffin, James Henderson, Littleton Tazewelf, 
James Semple, George Carter and William Tazewell, among 
the prominent names in Virginia. 

The old hospital building was destroyed by fire in June, 
1885, and it is believed that none of the first structures are 
now standing except a small frame house, within the grounds, 
formerly the residence of Superintendent James Gait, The in- 
stitution has largely developed, and now cares for over 642 
inmates, of whom 338 are males and 304 are females.' 

'Dr. Sequeyra was probably one of the educated Italians, who came 
with Philip Mazzei to this country. 

'An important and valuable history of the hospital was written by 
Dr. Ii. S. Foster, superintendent from 18S5 to 1907, and included in one 
of his annual reports. 



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Masonic Lodge. 

On the north side of Francis street, near the powder maga- 
zine, stand's a small dilapidated framed building, two stories 
high, which was the Masonic Lodge of Williamsburg. This 
lodge was at its best from 1773 to 1786; for among its mem- 
bers were several men of. national reputation, such as John 
James Beckley, first clerk of the house of representatives and 
first librarian of congress, Simeon Deane, brother of Silas 
Deane; Samuel Hardy, Dr. James McClurg, Jamts Monroe, 
George Nicholas, Peyton Randolph, William Short, Henry 
Tazewell and St. George Tucker. There is a beautiful chair 
embellished with masonic emblems, artistically carved, which 
was used by the grand master, and in which, it is stated, Wash- 
ington sat several times while visiting the lodge. It is said to 
have been presented to the lodge by Governor Norborne Berke- 
ley, Lord Botetourt. There is evidence that Williamsburg 
lodge was in existence prior to 1751, but it was not chartered 
till 1773.^ 

In 1775, when Peyton Randolph, provincial grand master 
of masons, died, his funeral was conducted with much cere- 
mony by the masons of Williamsburg. A subscription was 
raised for a portrait by Peale, and we have the information 
from Mr. T. H. Wynne's sketch of the Boiling family, that "a 
very beautiful full-length portrait of Peyton Randolph, repre- 
sented in full masonic costume, was some years since de- 
stroyed by fire in the library of congress in Washington." It 
was probably this portrait. 

On May 6, 1777, in consequence of a proposition from the 
Williamsburg lodge, the worshipful masters and wardens, or 
their deputies, met in Williamsburg for the purpose of selecting 
a grand master. The office was ofTered, first, to George Wash- 

' See "Williamsburg Lodge of Masons" in William and Mary Collegt 
Quart., I., 1-33. 



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246 Williamsburg, 

ington, who declined, and then to Warner Lewis, of Gloucester 
County, who also decHned. At a meeting on October 13, 1778, 
John Blair, master of Williamsburg lodge, was nominated and 
unanimously elected grand master of masons for the State of 
Virginia, and accepted the position. 

John Blair was the son of President John Blair, of the 
Virginia council, who was the son of Dr. Archibald Blair, 
brother of the founder and first president of William and Mary 
College. He was one of the chancellors of the state, a judge 
of the supreme court, and finally associate justice of the United 
States, in which last ofEce he died, August 31, 1800. 

Blair's jewel of office as grand master is still preserved in 
Williamsburg in a branch of his family. 

Among other relics of the early days preserved by the lodge 
is an old book kept by the treasurer from 1773 to 1786, which 
gives many details. This book informs us that the initiation 
fee in 1774 was £4; fee for passing 20s.; and for raising to 
master's degree, 20s. The quarterly dues were 5s. ; and ab- 
sences were fined is., 3d. The lodge was full of charitable 
works, and appears to have taken under its entire charge two 
orphan children of William Rind, one of the printers of the 
Gazette, including the expense of boarding, clothing and school- 
ing them. 

The annual meeting of the lodge, at which accounts were 
settled and officers elected, was on the feast day of St. John, the 
Baptist. Then the lodge was well attended ; and the items in 
the accounts for sugar, rum. and brandy seem to indicate that 
there were merry hours spent in the tavern of Gabriel Maupin, 
where the members met to dine on such occasions. 

This venerable masonic building, after passing into private 
hands, has again come into the possession of Williamsburg 
lodge, and measures are being taken to have it repaired and 
restored. 



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, TlFK HllTKTDrilT Mamonic ClIAIIl. 2, TfrK Oui Mamonk; 



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Noted Residences. 

Blair House. — This house is a good example of the early 
Williamsburg residence. It is a long, framed structure, one 
story and a half, with two entrances, approached by stone steps, 
evidently imported from England. In the style of the time, the 
house has two very large chimneys. It is stated that this old 
residence was formerly the house of John Blair, Jr., associate 
justice of the United States. About 1790 it belonged to Robert 
Andrews, professor of mathematics in the college, and secretary 
to Governor Thomas Nelson, It seems to occupy lot 36 on the 
map of Williamsburg. 

Six Chimney Lot. — This lot lies on the south side of Fran- 
cis street, in the eastern portion of the hospital park, and gets 
its name from the six chimneys which once stood there, the 
houses to which they belonged having perished by fire. This 
lot was formerly owned by Colonel John Custis, who died in 
1749, leaving it to his son, Daniel Parke Custis. George Wash- 
ington married the latter's widow, Martha Dandridge, and 
adopted her son, John Parke Custis, and when visiting Wil- 
liamsburg, would stay at the Custis resid'ence. All that remains 
at present to remind us of its past inhabitants is a brick kitchen 
and a large yew tree, said to have been planted with Mrs. 
Washington's hands. 

Wythe House. — This is a fine, square brick house ot two 
stories, situated on the east side of the Palace Green, next to the 
church-yard. It was erected by Richard Taliaferro about 1760, 
and by him, in his will, in 1775, left to the celebrated lawyer, 
George Wythe, who married his daughter, Elizabeth. The will 
provided that, at Judge Wythe's death it should descend to his 
grandsor, Richard Taliaferro. Mr. Wythe was a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, at one time sole chancellor 
of Virginia, and first professor of law in William and Mary 



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1, Peyton Randolph Houm. 2. Peachy House tWarburton). 
3. Baesett Hall. 



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250 Williamsburg, 

College. He devised the beautiful seal of Virginia, as well as 
the seal of the chancery court. When Washington, in pursuit 
of Lord Cornwallis, arrived in Williamsburg in 1781, he made 
this building his headquarters — ^a fact fully authenticated by a 
letter uf Colonel St. George Tucker. 

Saunders House. — The brick portion of this house was 
occupied by Governor Dinwiddle in 1751, when the palace was 
being repaired. It was later the residence of Robert Carter 
Nicholas, treasurer of the colony, and later still the property of 
Robert Saunders, who married Lucy, daughter of Governor 
John Page. He was president of the college, 1846-1848. 

Tucker House. — This house is situated on Nicholson street 
near Palace Green, and a portion was probably the house of 
William Levingslon, who had his residence, theatre and bowl- 
ing alley on this spot. Soon after the Revolution' it became the 
residence of St. George Tucker, father-in-law of John Ran- 
dolph, of Roanoke, and second professor of law at the college 
of William and Mary. It is now the property of his grand- 
daughter, Mrs. Cynthia Beverley Tucker Coleman. 

Henderson House. — Lots 170 and 171 at the northwest 
corner of Nicholson and England streets (now Colonial street), 
were deeded by the town trustees to Dr. Archibald Blair in 1716. 
They were owned by his son, Hon. John Blair, president of the 
Virginia council. About 1800 they were owned by Rev. James 
Henderson, assistant master of the grammar school in the col- 
lege, who married his daughter. It is probable that this house 
was, therefore, the residence of Hon. John Blair (born 1687; 
died 177 1.) 

Peachy House. — The lots at the northeast comer of Nicii- 
olson and England streets were owned, in 1800, by Thomas 
Griffin Peachy. They were probably the property, in 1781, of 
Mrs. Elizabeth (Bland) Beverley, widow of Colonel William _ 
Beverley, and came to Peachy by his marriage with their 
daughter, Elizabeth, widow of James Mills. It this be so, the 
letter of Colonel Tucker, who married Frances Bland (niece 



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NUThlU ItLHlDEN'CEH. 

1. Tucker liouKe. 2. Piiredisp House. 3. Blair Home (fonncrly Andrews) . 



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252 Williamsburg, 

of Mrs. Beverley), identifies the house as the headquarters in 
1781, of General Rochambeau. Further honor was reserved to 
it in 1824, when Dr. T. G. Peachy, grandson of T. G. Peachy, 
first named, entertained General Lafayette on his visit to the 
United States in 1824. The house and lots are now the prop- 
erty of Edmund W. Warburton, mayor of Williamsburg. 

Griffin House. — On the same side of Xicholson street, 
behind the Paradise house, on Duke of Gloucester street, is the 
former residence of Judge Cyrus Griffin, member of the conti- 
nental congress, and first judge of the district court of the 
United States for Virginia. His wife was Lady Christine Stu- 
art, daughter of the Earl of Traquair. William Wirt, the cele- 
brated attorney-general of the United States, lived here for a 
few months. It is now the residence of Mrs. Cynthia B. T. 
Coleman. 

Paradise House. — The lot on the north side of Duke of 
Gloucester street, numbered 44 in the plan of the city, was the 
property of John Paradise, who married Lucy Ludwell, young- 
est daughter of Colonel Philip Ludwell, of Greenspring. He 
was one of the literary club in London mentioned by Boswell 
in his Life of Samuel Johnson. In 1754 his father, Peter 
Paradise, was British consul at Thessalonica. He left two 
daughters — Portia, who died unmarried, and Lucy, who mar- 
ried Count Philip J. Earziza, of Venice, whose son of the same 
name settled in Williamsburg about 1806. This last had ten 
children, and the last was named Decimus Ultimus Barzisa. 
One of the daughters was living a few years ago in Houston, 
Texas. Mrs. Paradise, after living abroad with her husband 
for many years, returned to Virginia in 1805, after his death. 
Among other household treasures, she brought over her dining- 
room table, around which the literary club had so often been 
entertained. This table, together with a handsome wardrobe 
and satin-wood bureau that belonged to Mrs. Paradise, is at 
present the property of Miss Mary J. Gait, of Williamsburg. 
The Paradise house is a fine specimen of brick building in the 
Flemish bond. 



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Noted Residfncks. 253 

Tazewell Hall. — This building stood at the south end of 
England street, and was the birthplace of Edmund Randolph, 
attorney-general and secretary of state of the United States. 
Part of the original structure is now an outhouse to the present 
handsome edifice occupying the same spot, built about 1840. 
About 1790 this lot became the property of Henry Tazewell, 
United States senator and father of Littleton Waller Tazewell. 

Bright House. — Lot 203, on the south side of Francis 
street, not far from the magazine, was the property in 1800 of 
Colonel Wilson Miles Gary. About 1837 John Tyler lived in a 
house situated there. The old James City court-house was an 
office to this house, and on the west side was another small 
house, It was afterwards the residence of Samuel F. Bright, 
and was burned in 1873. 

CiiiswELL House. — This interesting building, situated on 
the sputh side of Francis street, near the east end of the town, 
was probably erected about 1750. It was originally the prop- 
erty of Colonel John Chiswell,.who married Elizabeth, daughter 
of William Randolph, of Turkey Island, Colonel Chiswell was 
the discoverer, in 1757, of the New River lead mines (now 
known as the Wythe Lead and Zinc Works), and Fort Chis- 
well, a few miles distant, was named for him. In 1766 he killed, 
in a quarrel, a Scotch gentleman by the name of Robert Rout- 
ledge, The matter created a great sensation, and his prosecu- 
tor being chosen in the prevailing custom by lot, it fell to John 
Blair, Jr,, an intimate friend, to conduct the case; but the 
suicide of the accused at his home in Williamsburg ended the 
proceedings. His house is now the property of Miss Virginia 
Wise, daughter of the late Dr, R. A, Wise, son of Governor 
Henry A, Wise. 

Galt House. — This house, on the north side of Francis 
street, nearly opposite to the Chiswell house, is said to be one 
of the old houses of Middle Plantation. One of the traditions 
of the place is that the house of burgesses held a meeting there. 
In 1677, when Jamestown was built, the assembly met at the 
house of Otho Thorpe at Middle Plantation. Was this house 
Otho Thorpe's? 



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254 Williamsburg, 

Peyton Randolph House. — This quaint old house, sit- 
uated on lot 255 on the south side of Francis street, in the 
eastern part of the town, was the residence of Peyton Ran- 
dolph, first president of the continental congress, who died in 
1775. Later it was occupied by Judge Hugh Nelson and his 
family, and in 1800, it was the property of Judge James Semple, 
while still later, it was the residence of Judge John B. Christian. 

Bassett Hall. — This handsome residence, adjoining Pey- 
ton Randolph's lot, was formerly the property of Burwell Bas- 
sett, nephew of Mrs. Washington. He was bom March 18, 
1764, at "Eltham," in \ew Kent County, and for many years 
was a member of congress, dying without issue in 1841. George 
Washington was a frequent visitor at this house. In the sum- 
mer of 1804, Williamsburg was visited by Thomas Moore, the 
Irish poet, who was much impressed with the beautiful lawn 
at Basselt Hall, illuminated at eve by myriads of fire-flies. 
Having never seen these insects before, he was inspired to pen 
the following lines : 

TO THE FIREFLY. 

At morning when the earth and sky 

Are glowing with the light of spring, 
We Bee thee not, thou humble flyl 

Nor think upon thy gleaming wing. 

But when the skies have lost their hue. 

And sunny lights no longer play, 
Oh, then we see and bless thee, too. 

For sparkling o'er the dreary way. 

Then let me hope, when lost to me 

The lights that now my life illume, 
Some milder joys may come, like thee, 

To cheer, if not to warm, the gloom 1 

In 1841 this place was the residence of John Tyler, at the 
time he became president of the United States by the death 
of President Harrison. He was officially notified of his suc- 
1 by Fletcher Webster, son of Daniel Webster, secreUry 



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NoTKD Residencks. 255 

of state, who came as messenger to Williamsburg from the cabi- 
net. The place is now the property of Mrs. Rebecca Minton 
Smith. 

Wallilr Ilousii. — This long, framed house on Francis 
street, in front of the Bassett house, was the residence of Judge 
Benjamin Waller, one of the Revolutionary patriots, who died 
May i8. 1786. It then ])asscd to his son, Benjamin Carter 
Waller, and from him it went to his son, William Waller, 
whose son, William, married Elizabeth Tyler, daughter of 
President John Tyler. This building now belongs to the family 
of the late William H. E. Morecock, who, for many years, was 
clerk of James City County court. 

McCANni-isn Hou-sic, — Across the street from Peyton 
Randolph's house, is a portion of the house of Colonel Rob- 
ert McCandlish, a distinguished lawyer, who died about 1859. 

Garrett House. — This is a very beautiful house of the 
old regime, near the old capitol. It was probably originally 
erected by John Coke, who owned the lots here about 1775. 
It is at present the property of the Garrett family. 

Audrky's House. — This ts a small, typical house of the 
eigbteemh century, on the east side of the Palace Green, made 
famous by Mary Johnston as the house of Audry, described in 
a novel of that name. On a window pan« is scratched, "A.' 
Boush, 1734"; on another, '"S. B., 171X1 — O fatal day." 



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Capitol Landing or Queen Mary's Port. 

Before the Revolution there was quite a village here. Henry 
Bocock and Matthew Moody had taverns of considerable pre- 
tensions. Across the creek was the fulling factory, and the 
field in which it stood is stil! known as the factory field. In 
1716 Samuel Timson obtained authority from York County 
court to place the first bridge across the creek. In 1774 a stone 
bridge was built, and the laying of the foundation stone was 
an occasion of much ceremony in Williamsburg, as the Virginia 
Ga::elte shows: 

Yesterday the Lodge of Frpe anJ Accepted Masons ot this city went 
in Procesaion, in the proper insignia of their order, to the Capitol Land- 
ing, and laid the foundation stone of the new Stone Bridge now building 
over Queen's creek, under which was a plate with the following inacrip- 

Rege Georgio Tertio, 

Comiti Dunmore Praefecto, 

Peyton Randolph Latomorum 

Praeside Supr«mo, 

Johanne Blair Praeside, 

Anno Lucia 

1774. 

After the proper and usual Libation they repaired to the House of 
Mr. Matthaw Moody junior (a Brother) and spent the Afternoon in 
Mirth and good Humour. 

On this road was the gallows, on which criminals, con- 
demned by the general court, consisting of the governor and his 
council, were hanged. On the east side, where the road enters 
the town was Waller's grove ; a little further north, beyond 
the present railroad was the tan-yard, and adjoining northerly 
was the Mattey school-house. 



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Vicinity of Williamsdurg. 

Rich Neck. — This place, which is situated on the roa<! to 
Jamestown, about a mile from Williamsburg, was originally 
patented about 1634 by (jeorge Menific, a member of the Vir- 
ginia council. It passed to Richard Kempe, who was secretary 
of state, and died about 1649. It next became the residence of 
Thomas Ludwell, Esquire, secretary of State, and when he died, 
it went to his brother, Colonel Philip Ludwell. and continued 
in his family over a hundred years, Nothing of the old resi- 
dence now remains except some tyles and a few old bricks. It 
is now the property of Mr. II. D. Cole, of Williamsburg. 

Green Spring. — This place is situated on the road to Bar- 
ret's ferry, about seven miles from Williamsburg. It was 
patented by Sir William Berkeley June 4, 1643, and comprised 
at first 984 acres, but it was subsequently increased to 1,090 
acres. Berkeley built a brick house here, the walls of which 
still remain. It was two stories and a half high, and had six 
rooms in the main building, and there were two wings besides. 
His widow. Lady Frances Berkeley, married Colonel Philip 
Ludwell, who lived here in much state. About 1800 it was the 
property of Hon. William Lee, who represented the United 
States in Holland. During the Confederate war the brick house 
was fired by federal soldiers. 

Powhatan. — This place is situated in James City County, 
near Powhatan Swamp, five miles from Williamsburg. It 
was the property, before the Revolution, of the Thorpes and 
Taliaferros. About 1800 it was the property of Hon. William 
Lee. During the war between the states, the old brick house 
was fired by some federal soldiers, but it was rebuilt on the 
same walls. 



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2$8 Williamsburg, 

Jamestown Island.— This place was the seat of the first 
permament English settlement in America, and is distant about 
seven miles from Williamsburg. It has been fully described by 
the author in a work entitled "The Cradle of the Republic." 



Jamestown Island- 

RiPON Hall. — This tract, distant about six miles from 
Williamsburg, on York River, was patented under the name of 
"Poplar Neck," and was owned about 1660 by Major Joseph 
Croshaw; and his son-in-law. Colonel John West, o£ West 
Point and Unity, his wife, sold it to Edmund Jenings, Esq., 
president of the Virginia council, who built a brick house 
there. And Jenings sold it to Robert (King) Carter, who 
devised it to his son, Colonel Landon Carter, of Sabine Hall, 
from whom it descend'ed to his son, Robert Wormeley Carter, 
whose son, George Carter, sold it in 1799, to Littleton Waller 
Tazewell. The brick house, which has long since disappeared, 
stood near the present Biglow's. 



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VlCINITV 01' WlI.LlAMSBUKG. 259 

Porto Bei,lo. — This place is situated on the north side of 
Queen's Creek, near its mouth, and is distant alrout six miles 
from Williamsburg. It was sold to Lord Dunmore by William 
Dnitnmond and Rachel (Tyler) his wife, in 1773. The brick 
house in which his lordship rested is still standing. 

RiNGFiELD. — This is a plantation lying between the forks of 
King's and Felgate's Creeks. It was first patented by Robert 
Felgate, a prominent ship captain from London, who made his 
will in 1640, leaving his estate to his brother, William Felgate, 
a skinner, of London. At William Felgate's death, his widow, 
Mary, married, in 1660, Captain John Underhill, Jr., from the 
city of Worcester, England, who resided here till his death. 
From Underbill the property went to Joseph Ring, a prominent 
planter, who probably built the house still standing. About 
1772 Ringfield was the property of Colonel Landon Carter, of 
"Sabine Hall." The house on the property is distinctly one 
of the seventeenth century. 

KiNcj's CuKEK Plantation. — In 1630 Captain John Utie 
patented this land, being one of the first to locate on York 
River. His son parted with his interest to Colonel William 
Tayloe, who gradually secured much of the neck. He married 
Elizabeth Kingsmill, and she married, secotidly, Colonel 
Nathaniel Bacon, senior. During Bacon's rebellion the jilace 
was occupied by Major Thomas Whaley, with a band of rebels, 
and a bloody battle ensued, in which Farroll, the leader of the 
royalists, was killed. Here Sir William Berkeley, in 1677, first 
put foot to land after his banishment to the Eastern Shore by 
Xathaniel liacon, Jr. At Colonel Bacon's death in 1694. the 
property passed to Lewis Burweli, who marriedi his niece. 
.Abigail Smith. About 1740, the whole tract between James 
River and York River was owned by the Burwells, from 
King's Creek to Queen's Creek on the York, and from. Skiff's 
Creek to Archer's Hope Creek on the James, James Burweli 
(son of Lewis) lived at King's Creek, on York River; Lewis 
Burweli, another son, lived at Kingsmill, on James River; and 
Mathaniel Burweli, another still, owned Martin's Hundred. 



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26o Williamsburg, 

which he obtained through his marriage with EHzabeth Carter, 
daughter of Robert (King) Carter. There is a stone on the 
side of the road going down to King's Creek neck, which 
marks the corner of the lands of ail three, having engraved 
upon its sides their initials. J. B., L. B., N. B. 

Bellfield. — The same year King's Creek was settled. Cap- 
tain John West, brother of Lord Delaware, planted himself at 
the east side of Felgate's Creek, which has a common mouth 
with King's Creek. Here his son, John West, the founder of 
West Point up York River, was born in 1633, the first child 
born on York River. In 1650, West sold the property to Ed- 
ward Digges, Esq., son of Sir Dudley Digges, master of the 
Rolls to King Charles II., who raised silkworms and died there. 
The place continued in the Digges family for over one hun- 
dred years, and during that time it was noted for its peculiar 
brand of tobacco, called the "E Dees." About 1795 it was sold 
by William Digges, of Newport News, to William Waller, 
and finally came to Colonel Robert McCandlish. It is still 
owned by the McCandlish family. 

Indian Fields. — Further down the York River is "Indian 
Fields," where the Chiskiack Indians once had their town. 

YORKTOWN.— The land here was first patented by Captain 
Nicholas Martian, a French Walloon, who came to Virginia in 
1621. His daughter, Elizabeth, married Colonel George Reade, 
secretary of state, in 1641. In 1691, his son, Benjamin Reade, 
sold fifty acres for a town, and in 1698 the county seat of York 
County was moved there from the Half-way house, between 
Williamsburg and Yorktown, but a busy mart grew up, and in 
the year 1749 the trade amounted to £32,000 sterling. During 
the Revolution it was occupied by the British army under Corn- 
wallis, who was forced to surrender October 19, 1781, to the 
combined armies of France and the United States. It has never 
recovered from the injuries inflicted by the American army at 
that time. Its trade, however, was entirely out of proportion 
to its population, which never exceeded 1,000. Its population 



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Vicinity of Williamsdurg. 261 

at present is about two hundred. The chief thing;s of interest 
in Yorktown are the custom house, Cornwallis' cave, the Nelson 
house, the old church, the monument, and the revolutionary and 
confederate fortifications. On the hill, at the eastern point of 
Yorktown creek, stood, about fifty years ago, a picturesque 
windmill erected in the year 1717, by William lluckner. There 
was an old well on the shore in 1691, where the ships got their 
water. 

Tkmpli; Farm. — About three miles down York River frcrni 
Yorktown, is Temple Farm, where the articles of surrender 
were signed by Lord Cornwallis. It was patented by Sir John 
Harvey about 1631, and a village grew up called "York." The 
church of York parish was th«re, until the removal, in 1698, of 
the county seat to Yorktown from the Half-way house on the 
road to Williamsburg, Brick foundations, sometimes mistaken 
for the ruins of a "temple," are all that remains of the early 
church, but in a d'eed in the court house, the field in which 
they lie is called the "church field." Here, in 1649, resided 
Colonel George Ludlow, one of the council, and across Worme- 
ley's creek was Colonel Ralph Wormeley's residence. Major 
Henry Norwood, Sir Thomas Lunsford, Major Manwaring 
Hammond and other cavaliers were entertained by Colonels 
Ludlow and Wormclcy after their voyage from England on the 
beheading of Charles 1. From the Lndlows, Temple farm went 
to Major Lawrence Smith, in whose family it continued until 
about the Revolution, when it was occupied by Mrs. Anne 
Moore, the widow of Daniel Moore. Spotswood never lived 
there, as is sometimes said, 

CARTiiR's Grove. — This plantation is situated on James 
River, in Martin's Hundred, which was settled in 1618, and is 
distant about six miles from Williamsburg. It is a noble ex- 
ample of the Virginia country gentleman's home of the eigh- 
teenth century, and was adorned with terraces and gardens. 
The house, which is very large, is built in the Flemish bond, 
and has two detached wings. Robert Carter's daughter, Eliza- 
beth, married Nathaniel Burwell, of Fairfield, in Gloucester 



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262 Williamsburg, 

County, eldest son of Major Lewis Burwell. Their son, 
Carter Burwell, made it his regular residence, and at the 
dose of the century, it was owned by his son, Nathaniel Bur- 
well, who removed to Clarke County, when "Carter's Grove" 
passed out of the Burwell family. It was for a long time the 
hospitable residence of Dr. E. G. Booth. 

KiNGSMiLL. — This plantation is on James River, distant 
about four miles from Williamsburg, and originally consisted 
of 850 acres, patented by Richard Kingsmill, an early settler. 
His daughter, Elizabeth, married Colonel Nathaniel Bacon, 
who left all his property to his niece, Abigail Smith, who mar- 
ried Major Lewis Burwell, of King's Creek. Lewis Burwell. 
Major Burwell's son by his second wife, Martha Lear, received 
this property from his father, and built upon it a large brick 
mansion house with gardens and other considerable improve- 
ments. It was standing about 1800, and is described in the 
Virginia Gazette as two stories high, four rooms to a floor, with 
two wings or offices. The ground in front was terraced to 
the river, and there were on the place a brick brew house, 
stables, barns and coach house. There was a wharf here, where. 
for many years, the steamer received passengers from Wil- 
liamsburg. Nearly all the old structures are gone, but the 
plantation is still ranked among the best on James River. 

LiTTLETOwN. — This plantation adjoins Kingsmill, easterly. 
In 1633 it was the residence of George Menifie. In 1752 it 
was the residence of Colonel Thomas Bray. 



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Windmill at Yobktowit, Stxndiwo About 1880. 



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Anecdotes. 

After the death of John Camm, in 1779, Rev, Mr. Samuel 
Sheild succeeded him as minister of Yorkhampton Church. His 
sermons differed from those of most of the Episcopal preachers 
of his day, being rather of the Methodist order. It is said a 
lady of Williamsburg, one of the old school, at a time when 
stiff brocades were the church dress of those who could afford 
it, would come home after some of Mr. Sheild's animated dis- 
cussions, and call upon her maid to takt off her clothes, for she 
had heard so much of hell, damnation and death that it would 
take her all the evening to get cool. 

When young Count Barziza, of Venice, came to Williams- 
burg about 1806, accustomed to the marble palaces of his native 
city, he was much surprised at the fashionable looking young 
ladies that came out of the homely houses of Williamsburg ; he 
exclaimed : "What lovely houris to come out of such wretched 
hovels !" 

Among the ladies of Williamsburg about 1845 was Miss 
Matilda Southall, noted for her wit and sprightliness. On one 
occasion in winter, when the distinguished president of the col- 
lege, Thomas R. Dew, slipped on the sidewalk as he came to the 
college. Miss Matilda, who was behind him, remarked that "it 
was the largest dew-drop she ever saw." 

During the late war (1861-1865) two of the ladies of the 
town were reported by some negroes as secretly haboring 
President Davis and General Lee. The federal provost mar- 
shall summoned them to his office, and there was a hearty laugh 
when the two "rebels" turned out to be two favorite roosters 
bearing those noted names. 

Rev. Scervant Jones, minister of the Baptist congregation 
which met in the powder magazine, was a singular mixture of 
piety, simplicity, humor and business shrewdness. Many 
anecdotes are related of him, and the following are worth re- 



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'Anecdotes, 265 

peating: The Methodists, being a new congregation, had no 
regular church of their own, and had rented a building on 
Francis street. The following Sunday they engaged in service, 
and their songs and shouts were borne on the air to the powder 
magazine, where Mr. Jones was haranguing his own congrega- 
tion of Baptists. He abruptly excused himself in the midst of 
his sermon and went outside of the magazine. After a few 
minutes he returned and remarked: "I thought I heard some 
dogs howling, but found it was only our Methodist brethren 
rejoicing." 

He travelled about a good deal, and came to the house of a 
Mr. Howie in New Kent County, just after the family had con- 
cluded dinner. The remains of the feast were rather scanty, 
and Mr. Jones said the following grace: 

Good Lord of love, look from above. 
And hteti the 'owl which ate thiB fowl 
And left the bones for Scervant Jonea. 

He married twice — first, Anne Timson Buckncr; and, sec- 
ond, a Mrs. Pollard. The latter was reported to have con- 
siderable property, and Mr. Jones, before his marriage with 
her, adopted a novel way to ascertain its true extent. Staying 
over one night, Mr. Jones was asked to officiate in the morning 
at the family prayers, to which he readily consented, but re- 
marked that it was the custom on his own plantation to have 
all the members of his family present, black and white. Mrs. 
Pollard took the hint and sent out for all her slaves, and they 
came dropping in, one by one. "Are they all here, ma'am?" 
said Mr. Jones, "No," said Mrs. Pollard, "there are some more 
to come." Mr. Jones asked the question several times more, 
and finally Mrs. Pollard said: "they are all here, Mr. Jones." 
"Then," said the parson, who had been busily counting the 
while, "let us engage in prayer." 

His marriage to Mrs. Pollard was not unhappy, but, if his 
tombstone is to be believed, his deeper affections turned to the 
wife of his earlier choice: 



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2fi6 Williamsburg, 

Time was when bis cbeek with life's crimran was flushed. 
When cheerful his voice nas. health sat on his brow — 
That cbeek ia now palsied, that voice is now hushed: 
He sleeps with the dust of his fir$t partner now. 

It is said that the slab which marks her grave was brought 
to Williamsburg on the top of the coach in which he and his 
second wife sal, as they returned from their wedding. Mrs. 
Pollard probably read the following verses: 

If woman ever yet did well 

If woman ever did excell 

If woman huslMod ere adored 

If woman ever loved the Lord 

If ever Faith and Hope and Love 

In human flesh did live and move 

If all the grates e'er did meet 

In her, in her, they were complete 

Mj Ann, my all. my Angel wife 
My dearest one, my love, my life 
I cannot sigh or say farewell 
But where thou dwellest I will dwell. 



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APPENDIX. 



CiiABT OF WiLUAMsuUKu (see frontiBpiece). — TbU chart cannot be 
older than 1783, for the Tuckfr lots, in 1TH3, were the property of John 
Tazewell. 

CUAPTEB 1. (See page 10). — Pott's plantation (1,200 acres patented 
June S, 1632), was called "Harop," and appears to have been south of 
Popley'a grant and on Archer's Hope creek. After his death the land 
went to his brother, Francis Pott, who sold it to Williani Davis. Davis 
patented the land in 1043, bui, dying without heirs, it was patented by 
John Uromfleld in 1050. It adjoined Tuttey's neck on the south, which 
was separated from Kingsinill by a branch of Archer's Hope creek. In 
lOQO Harop was owned by Humphrey Higginson, Esq., who on his 
death in that year gave the land to his brother, Captain Christopher 
Higginson. In 1710 Major i-ewis Uurwelt devised Harop to his son 
Lewis. Dr. Pott came evidently of the Harop branch of the Pott family 
in England, and was probably son of Henry Pott of Harop in Cheshire, 
Knd hia cousin, Grace Pott, wife of said Henry. See " Several Early 
Phyfiiclana" in William and Uary College Quarteriy HtHtorical Maga- 
:!ine, XIV., 07. 

Chapter 111.— College of William and ilary. The aystein of inetruc- 
i>oit in vogue at William and Mary, previous to the Revolution, van 
like that pursued in Kngland. First, the boy entered the grammar 
school, where he remained about Ave years studying l^lin and Greek. 
At nfteen years of age he was examined, and on passing satisfactorily 
was admitted to the pliilosophy school, in which there were two profes- 
sors, one who taught "rhetoric, logic and ethics," and another who 
taught "physicks, metnphysics and mathematies." He was now called 
"student," and assumed the cap and gown. After two years he beeamc 
an A. B., and after four yearn an A, M. But the destruction of records 
prevents any accurate lii;t of such graduates at William and Mary. On 
attaining his d^ree of A. B. he was passed (if intending for the minis- 
try) to the divinity school, which had also two profewaors — one who 
taught the Hebrew tongue and expounded the Old and New Testaments, 
and another who taught "the commonplaces of divinity and the con- 
troversies with heretics," If he proposed to be a lawyer, he went to 
one of the law schools in England, or studied in a lawyer's olTiee in 



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268 Appendix. 

Virginia. Tlie doctors studied in Europe. The catalogues of the 
northern colleges show that hardly any of the Virginia youth studied 
in the North previous to the Revolution. (See William and Mary 
yuarferJy.) 

The first departure from the Oxford curriculum at Williain and 
Mary was made by Dr. William Small, who was professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Mathematics from October 18, 1758, to September 25, 
17C4.' He introduced the lecture system at the college. The next de- 
parture was taken by the Board of Visitors in 1770. There wan much 
demand for 9urvej-or» to lay out lands, and this body, consisting of 
native Virginians, passed a decree, despite the protest of the Oxford 
and Cambridge profeiisors in the faculty, to admit, without the usual 
previous training in the classics, any one who had acquired "a compe- 
tent knowledge of common or vulgar arithmetic" to the mat)i«matical 
school. Nine years later (in 1770), when the Revolution had driven to 
England the foreign element in the faculty, the whole course was reor- 
ganized by Governor JefTer^on, then a member of the Governing Board. 
The grammar and dlvinily schools were abolished, and in their place 
were established schools of modern languages, of anatomy and medicioe, 
and of law and police. Planting itself squarely on the platform of free 
thought, William and Mary became the first institution in America to 
announce the lecture, Elective and Honor systems now almost univer- 
sally accepted; the first to establish a school of law for the training of 
young men lor the bar; the first to have a school of modern languages; 
and the first, by uniting the faculties of law, medicine and the arts and 
sciences in one institution, to attain the character of a university — a 
name formally assumed for the college in the caption to the faculty 
records June j, 1781. In view of the tendency in colleges at the present 
time to drop tne classics from the requirements for A. B., it may be 
observed that Mr. JclTerson abolished Latin and Greek from the college 
at the time of the organization of the college m 1778. The study iras 
restored, however, in 1702. 

The numbers at William and Mary were never large, but, as they 
consi!jted ot the young men from influential families, the alumni of the 
institution exerted prevailing influence upon an'aira in Virginia from 
1694 to 1861. iSee "The Making of the Union," 1S99, a pamphlet by 
the author.) In 1702 there were 29 grammar scholars; in 1730, 60 
students and scholars; in 1754 about 115 students, scholars and Indian 
boys, and in 1770 about 120. 

The following is a statement of the students at the college from 1780 
to 1907. Only the figures opposite to the years mal'ked with an aate- 
risk(*) includes the boys at the grammar school. That school was dis- 
continued at the reorganization in 1888: 

e for England is given 



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269 



Number of Studcnii at William >ad M«cy Collctfc. 

Ybar. No.' Ykah. No. Ykar. 

1786* 

1787 

1788 

1789 



1793 ■ 
1794. 

1795 . 

1796 . 
1797- 
»79B- 



183s . 
J836. 

1837 . 

1838 . 

1839 . 

1840 . 



1843- 
1844. 

1845 - 

1846 . 

1847 ■ 



i8s». 

1853 ■ 
1854. 
185s . 

1856 . 

1857 . 

1858 . 



iDtermission 
iDtermission 
Intermission 
Intermission 



No record 



1867* 



53 



30 

, . . . . . 27 

Intermission 
Intermission 
Intermission 
Intel mission 
Intermission 
- imermission 



1893 • 
1894. 
1895 . 
1896. 



Burgesses. — The riglit of the college under its cliarter to xend rppre^ 
aenlatives to the ax^iEmbly wiis taken away by the (institution of 177D> 
The following gentlemen represented the college at different time* ; 
John CuKtls in 1720; Thomas Jones, 1720-1722; Kir John Randolph, 
knight speaker, 173(i; KUword Harradull, attorney-general, 1738-1742; 
Jlevcrley Itandolph, t744-1740; Peyton Randolph, attorney -general, 
1752-1757; Ucorge Wythe, 17flO-17llO; Mann Page, 17(JM7«r>i John 
Blair, 17115-17(18; John lllair, Jr., 17«fl-1770; John Page, 1771-1773; 
•The years given are thoce in whii'h the seHsions began. 



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270 Apfekdix, 

John Randolph, attornef-geneTal, 1774-1775; John Blair, Jr., in conven- 
tion of May, 1776. 

Schotarahipt.—'Hii: si-liolarsliips ei>tablished in the college before the 
Revolution were-. The ten publie scholarships arising from the act of 
the assembly of 1718 (i-ee page 130) and the act ot 1745 imposing duties 
upon liquors; and the seven private scholarships; Bill's, founded by 
Colonel EdwErd Hill's will, in 1720, amounting to £150, which was in- 
creased by Bobert Carter (1727) to £200. (It was intended to be 
invented in books, but thia, it appears, was not done) ; Bray's scholar- 
ship (1716), founded by Mrs. Sarah Bray, widow of Captain Thomas 
Biay, of New Kent, £200; Harrison's seholaiship, founded by Mrs. 
J'JIiEabeth Harrison, of Surry, £200; the Blair scholarships, founded by 
J)r. James Blair in 1743, £500: and the I,iqhtfoot scholarships, founded 
in 1746 by I'hilip I.ightfoot Esq of Sandy Point £500. By the Revolu- 
tion these funds were lost, and the scholarships were discontinued. 

The Public Lands about Williamsburg donated in 1784 by the Gen- 
e al \fi emhl} (con pr s ng the I'alace lands \ ineyard land, and the Main 
tarn and some lots in Williamsburg realized when sold $1S,048,25 
(Judge Janes Semple eport to the faculty in 1S24). 

Ihe list o the chaaceltort of tbe college as far as known, were as 
f>llows Henrj Con pton bishop of London Thomas Tenison, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury William Wake archbishop of Canterbury; 
hdmiind iiibson, bishop of London; Thomas^ Sherlock, bishop of Lon- 
don; Thomas Hayter, arehbiahop of Canterbury; Charles Wyndham, 
ear! ot Egremont; Philip Yorke, earl of Hardwick; General George 
Washington, president of the United States; John Tyler, LL. D., presi- 
dent of the United States; Hugh Blair Grigsby, LL. D., president of the 
\'irginia Historical Society. 

The Statulet of the college. — Editions of the statutes were published 
in 1736 (Library of Congress), 1744, 1758 (Lenox Library), 1792 (Vir- 
ginia State Library), 181T, 1827 (William and Mary College Library). 

The General Catalogue (seepage 180) passed through four editions^ — - 
1855, 1859, 1870, 1874. (Copies in William and Mary College Library 
of each.) 

On page 190, the year of Mr. Hugh Jones' admission as professor 
of natural philosophy and mathematics, should be given as 1717. (See 
Spots wood's Letters If., 253.) 

Surveyor-General, — Among the grants of the charter was the office of 
surveyor-general. Before the transfer, in 1729, the office was exercised 
thi-ough a deputy — Miles Cary, from 1093 to 1708, William Buckner from 
1708 to 1716, and Peter Beverley from 1710 to 1729. After that time 
the office was administered by the faculty, till about the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, when the Legislature abolished the power. 



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Appendix. 271 

(.'IIAITKK XVI, — Noted Residences — to the list given in the text niiij' 

lie milled tliu foHuwin);: (1) The i eat House on Duke of Gtoueestei 
street, near the old ca|>itot, numbered Jll nnd 27 on tlie chart of the 
I'lty, was tlie headqUBrtevn of Oeorge B McCIellan when the Federal 
army, in I8U2, oceupied the citj It obtains its name from itn late 
proprietor — Mr. \V. W. Vest. (2) 1 he (oke Home on Francii street 
IS a square red brii'k houne, whirh not long before the late war waa the 
)>ropei-ty of John Coke, V.»<\., father of lion Richard Coke senator from 
Texas. About iHUO it was tlie rexidencc of Judge Samuel Tjlet chan 
cellor of the dintrict. (3) UoU House (Northington). There in a fine 
old houHe Htanding on Keotland street, whieli is said t« have been built 
by William Holt, mayor of Williamsburg. Lota 212, 213, 214, 217, con- 
stitulinft the square in which the houiw stands, were sold to William 
lloll. in 1781, by t)v. Jainea Carter, of WilMamsburg, and HeiUr, hi^ 
wifi'. ilie Iftltet obtained them by deed from Kobert Anderson and 
Ann. his wife, in 171IU. And Ann Anderson obtained them by the will 
(if Dr. John Anderxon, who gcjt them from the trustees of the town. 
They adjoined northerly ISO acres purchased by Dr. Anderson, in 1752, 
from Mr. Henry Tyler, who lived on the tract, " l)eing a part of 254 
lu-res granted lo Mr, Henry Tyler, grandfather of the naid Henry, by 
jitneut bearing date the 7lh of -lanuury, 1((52, and from the eaid Henry, 
(lie gramifHtlier, the same descended to his son Henry Tyler, who de- 
vised tlic HHine by his la^t will to the said Henry Tyler, party tu the.e 
presents," Indeed, these lots, like the palace gronndu, were doubtless 
part of Henry Tyler's original grant, (4) MoreiMck House. This hand- 
some c-oloniul residence on Duke of (Jloui-ester street, oeeiipying lots 
■-1 and 22, was the property of William Kowsay. It was the residence 
for thirty years of William H. K, Morecock, derk of the court tor the 
i-ounfy of James City and city of Williamsburg. (6) Vary House- This 
nouse was the residence of Colonel Wilson Miles Cary, a' member of the 
VirRinia convention of 1770, His sister, Mary Cary, is reported to 
have been n sweetheart of Washington, and she married Kdward Ambler, 
o( Jamestown. Another sister, Klizabeth, married llryan. Lrird Fairfax. 



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INDEX. 



Aoadcmia Virgincntis cl OxiinUtn- 

tin, 112. 
Acpomac, 7, 224. 
AdaJiiM, 3S, 71, aa7, 
Affloi-k, 32, 33. 
AlbentRi'te County, SO, 1T2. 
Allen, 24. 

Amblor, 108, Appcndim. 
Ameriiian KpiHCopuoy, 64, 100. 
AniHon, Appondin. 
AndGrxon, 74, 104, Appendix. 
Andrews, 111, Hfl, 108, 170, 172, 178, 

244, 248 261. 
AndroR, 03, 123 124 I2S, 133. 
AneL-dotoH, 37. 52, 120, 127, ir>8, 

lUH, 2U4, 2U5. 
Anno, Queen, 20, 21, 12B, 12K, 120, 

222. 
AnnapolU, 21, 22, 28, 30. 
Apollo, The. 48, 00, 234, 235; Pic- 
ture of, 235, 
Archer, ISO. 
Archer'H Hope (Jreuk, 10, 12, 13, 20, 

30, 93, 57, 1>3, 250, Appendix. 
Arthcr'M lloiJP Swauip, 123. 
AnniHU'ttd, 21, 232. 
Arnold, 81, 82. 
AaHOiiiution for the Prehprvation 

of Virginia Antiquities, 212, 223, 

238, 
Atlwwefi, 5(1. 
Audi'uy'ii HuuKe, 26S. 
AukuaU County, IWl. 
Aylutt, 04. 

Bncon, 14, IH, 40, 114, 150, 218, 

250. 202. 
Bacon's Kebellion, 13, i», 218. 
Baldwin. 01. 
Ballard, 21, 122, 123. 
Bancroft, 40. 
Itaptinta, 14. 
Itarlmur, 180. 
Barclay, 232. 
Harradall, 30, 108, Appendix. 



Barraud. 244. 

llarrfl, 42. 

Barret, 41, 142. 

Barry, William Taylor, 8H, IHO, 

portrait of, 171. 
Barziita, 231, 262. 
BaHselt, 81, 88, 231, 254, 
Ba^KCtt ilall, 88, 254, picture of, 

240. 
Beaufort, Dulce of, 54. 
Beckley. 202, 245. 
BellHeld, 200. 

Bellini, Charles, 80, 170, 172, 178. 
Bel tall 00 ver, 103, 
Berkeley, 14, 10, 18, 44, 46, 04, 107, 

112, 125, 224, 245, 2S7, 25"! 

Bermuda, 32, 5.'>, 6S. 

Bernard, 44. 

Berry, IC. 

llexouth, 04, 08. 

Bf'verley. 85, 127, 128, 200, 205, 
250, 262. 

Biglow"K, 258. 

Bird. 103. 

Hlat'kauiore, 25, 120, 130, 214, 

Black Uoa.rd. 25, 221; portrait, 27. 

Black-^lone, 172. 

Blackwater Uiver, 118, 130. 

Blaekwell, 178. 

Blade nKburf(, 01, 

Blair, 21, 24, 211. 30, 33, 30, 41, 43. 
44, 63, 64, 57, 8(1, 87, 00, 100. 
103, 108, 114. 110, 118, 110. 122. 
123, 124, 125, 120, 127. 128, 120. 
131, 133, 134, 130, 140, 141, 142, 
143, ISO, 100, 1U8, 200, 220, 228, 
232, 242, 244, 240, 248, 250. 261, 
253. 250, Appendiis; John Auto- 
graph, 35 ! Dr. JamcH, t'oi trait, 
115, Autograph, 31; lAx*. .Tamra 
Blair, portrait, 130; John IJluir, 
,Tr., portrait. 111. 

Blair House, 243, 261 ; picture of, 
261. 



lyCoogle 



2;4 

Bland, 20, 24, 40, 54, 72, 97, 98, 
202, 260. 

BleDheim, 22, 125. 

Bocock, 25^. 

Bonell, 49. 

BoRDfmaa, 94. 

Booth, 2fl2. 

Boston, 44, 46, S9, 61, 64, 66, 11, 
88, 234. 

Boaton Port Bill, 59, 60. 

Boswell, 252. 

Botetourt, 20, 46, 40, 49, 50, 52, 
55, 56, 168, 182, 166, 198, 200, 
202, 216,217, 234, 245; portrait, 
51; Bot«tourt'e coQiii plate, 200; 
medala. 181, 162, 168, 200; pic- 
ture of, I6i; SUtue, 52, 198. 

Boundary Stone, 121, 123, 198. 

Bonles, 28. 

Boyle, 119, 132. 137, 140, 174, 198; 
portrait, 117. 

Bracken, John, 108, 184, 1G8, 178, 
182,244; Autograph of, 183. 

Braddock, 34. 

Brafferton Building, 30, 90, 110, 
129, 132, 137, 13B, 140, 156, 158, 
174, 192, 198, 200; picture, 113. 

Braxton, 67, 72. 

Bray, 13, 14 19, 26, 94, 98, 108, 
262; Appendix; (oni6e(on«, 109. 

Brick bondH, 102, 123, 132. 

Bridges, 198. 

Bright House, 223, 239, 253. 

British troops, 81-84. 

Broadrib, 127. 

Brooke, 13. 

Brown, 24, 184, 186. 

Bruce, Economic History of Vir- 
ginia, 200. 

Brunswick County, 130, 150. 

Bruton parish and church, IS, 22, 
28, 30, 32, 44, SO, 90, 93-109, 143, 
158, 164, 218; View of Church, 
95; Petition, of Vestry, 97; Ser- 
vice, 101; View of Bell, 105; 
View of Churchyard, lOfl. 

Bryan, 102. 

Buchanan, 134. 

Buckner, 281, 265. 

Buck roe, 49. 

Burch, 109. 

Burk, History of Virginia, 178. 

Burke, Edmund, 42, 59. 

Burke, General Armory, 120. 

BurgesECg of the College, 116; 
Appendis. 



Burgoyn, General, 81, 

Burlington, Earl of, 119, 140- 

Burnaby, 37, 160. 

Burnet. 116, 119. 

Burnt Ordinary, 90. 

Burwell, 12, 21, 32, 66, lOO, 102. 

127, 128, 242. 244, 269, 261, 262, 

Appendix. 
Burwell's Ferry, 65, 82, 222. 
Bryan, 102. 
Byrd, 66, 122, 132, 198; William, 

portrait, 29. 

Cabell, William, 72; Joseph C, 
180; portrait, 171; William H., 
Portrait of, 177. 

Camm, 54, 108, 144, 146, 147. 151, 
154, 156, 158, 180, 181, 162, 164, 
166, 244, 264; Autograph of 
John Camm, 161. 

Campbell, 120, 178. 

Capitol, The, 21. 32, 33, 37, 76, 84. 
86, 103, 143, 172, 205-213; Pic- 
ture of, 207; View of Site, 211. 

Cape Company, 33, 50. 

Capitol L&nding (see Queen Mary's 
Port). 

Carr, 153, 202, 212. 

Carrington, 72. 

Carter, 21, 28, 128, 163, 240, 242, 
244, 268, Appendix; Robert, por- 
trait, 29; Landon, portrait of, 
163. 

Carter's Grove, 261. 

Carthagena, 22, 28, 30, 32, 142. 

Cal-y, 74, 122, 138, 163, 206, 213. 
216, 253, Appendix; Archibald, 
portrait of, 163. 

Cary House, Appendix. 

Caiesby, 25. 

Catharine Memorial Society, lOfi. 

Cavallo, 166. 

Chamberlayne, 36. 

Chancellors of the College, 119, 
179, Appendix. 

Charles 1., 201. 

Charles II., 13, IB. 

Cha.rle8 City County, 67, 72, 74, 
111, 130, 133. 

Chai-leston, 59, 81. 

Charter of the College 110. 

Chaatellux, 85. 

Chatham, Earl of, 59, 

Chelsea Hospital, 133. 

Chesapeake Bay, 7, 8, 10, 80, 83. 

Chosley, 94. 



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Cliestcr, 81. 

Chickalioiiiiny River, 82, 88. 

Chickabominy Swamp, 14. 

Oh-iskiaok, 7, 8, 10. 

Ohiswell, 232. 

Chiawell House, 2S3. 

Christian, 254, 

Church Review, 04. 

Church Serviees, 107, 108. 

City Point, 111. 

Claiborne, 7, 8, 11, 93, 96. 

Clark, 81, 111, 121. 221. 

Clarke, 12. 

ClaTkaon, 237. 

Clayton, 24, 2U, 30, 57, 61. 

Clerke (See Clarke). 

Clergy, Conventiona of, 114, 144, 

U7, 160. 
Clinton, Sir Henry, 83. 
CoalUr, 174. 
Coat of Arnra, 120. 
Cobbs, 03, 04, 87, 08. 
Cocke, 24. 25, 20, 57, 62, 82, 09, 

108, 137, 142, 240. 
Coke, 67, 255, Appendix/. 
Coke House, Appendix. 
Cole, 122, 143, 257. 
Coleman, 220, 250, 252. 
(Allege Creek, 20. 
College OfiHcerB, 160. 
College Village, 86-93. 
College of William and Mary (nee 

William and Mary Collegel- 
Collins, 65. 

Colonial Williamsburg, lO-.'iS. 
C*medianB, 227, 220, 230, 231. 
Committee of CorrcKpondenre, 50. 
Committee 0/ Safety, 72. 
Compton, lie, 119, 122. 
Congress, 60, 61, 62, 04, 66, 74, 193. 
Conway, 42. 
Copland, no, 111. 
Contesse, 24. 
Corbin, 24, 08, 87. 
Cornwallia, HI, 82, 93, 84, 91, 92, 

103, 108, 217, 2.'>0, 260, 201. 
Oornwallis'B Cave, 201. 
County Committeea, 82. 
County and City Court House, 86, 

240, 241; Picture of , 241. 
County Surveyor's Bond, photo- 
graph, 165. 
Courses of Instruction, 114, 134- 

138, 153, 170-178, 200, 204, Ap- 

Covent Garden, 220. 



ix. 27s 

Cradle of Revolution, 38-86. 
"Cradle of the Republic," 258. 
Craig, 57, 06. 
Crittenden, John J., 180; Portrait 

of, 171. 
Croghan, George, portrait of, 187. 
Croahaw, 93, 258. 
Crump, William W., portrait, 20J. 
Cumberland, Duke of, 46. 
Cumberland County, 77, 138. 
Cumming, 32. 
Curtie, 193. 
CuHlIs, 18, 26, 06, 00, 248, Appen- 

Dale, 7. 
nallon, 36, 

Dandridge, 248. 
Dartaiiiouth, Ixird, OB, 70. 
Davenport, 160. 
Daviea, 118, 143, 230. 
Davis, 237, 284, Appendia. 
Dawson. 28, 33, 41, 43, 87, 100, 

108, 130, 131, 138, 140, 142, 143, 

144, 140, 147, IQO, 151, 163; 

Autograph of William, 87; Au- 

tograpk of Tliomas, 162. 
Declaration of Independence, 77, 

78. 
Deane, 86, 245. 
Degreen, 138. 
De Oraaae, Count, 83. 
Delawafer, 118. 
Delaware, 48, 78, 93. 
Itenbigh, 7. 
Denison, 108. 
Dew, Thomas R., 183, 180, 188, 

264; Autograph, 183; Portrait, 

101. 
Dick, 231, 
Dickson, 70. 

Diggpn, 72, 242, 244, 260. 
Dinwiddie. 32, 33, 34, 143, 144, 146, 

216, 22H, 234, 250; Robert, por. 

trait, 35. 
Divinity School at the College, 114, 

118, 137, 150, 168, 170, 
Dixon, 43, 04, 81, 158, 168, 232, 

230, 237. 244. 
Dodfl, 104. 

Don castle's Ordinary, 87, 
Dowdeswell, 60. 
Doyley, 108. 
Downes, 110. 
Drunitnond, 14. 
Drysdale, 28, 133. 



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276 



I>uke of Gloucester Street, 13, 20, 
21, 28, 102, 103. 128, 205, 238, 
240, 252; View, 3». 

Dunmore, 55, 59, 60, 02, 64-72, 76, 
78, 162, 164, 216, 217, 220, 222, 
234, 256, 250; Portrait, 69. 

Dunmore's Wine Cellar, 220. 

EaaUr, 96. 

East India Company, 59, liO, 110. 

East India Scbool, 111. 

Eaton's 1-Vee School, 112. 

Eburne, 108. 

Edwafd Vll., 108. 

Ettingham, Lord, 44, 116. 

Elizabeth City, 11, 49, 72, 74, 112. 

Elliott, 22. 

EI*ing Green, 67. 

Elthain, 81, 254. 

Elective System, 160, 175. 

Emmerson, 158. 

Empie, Adam, 108. 183, 184; Aw 

tograpk, 183; Portrait of, 185. 
Eppes, 175. 
Esulave, 49, 50. 
Everard, 57, 62, 102, 242. 
Evelyn, 10. 
Ewell, Benjamin S., 31, 129, 183, 

188, 189, 190, IBl, 192, 193, 198; 

Autograph, 183; Portrait, 191. 

Factories, 56. 

Faculty Book, pages from 41, 43, 

87, 131, 151, 152. 
Fairfax, 33, 143, Appendix. 
Fairfax County, 72, 143. 
Barnifold, 122. 
Fauquier, 36, 38, 42, 44, 5v, 108, 

140, 147, 150, 21G, 217, 242; 

Francis, Autograph, 35. 
Federal Soldiers, oath required by, 

80; College burned by, ui, 190. 
Felgate, 230, 260. 
Fenn, 13, 03. 
Finances of the College, 156, 174, 

182, 192, 194, 204. 
Fincaatle, Lord, 59. 
Finnie, 228, 229, 232. 
Fire Engines, 58. 
Fitahugh, 168. 
Fleming, 153. 
Flournoy, 24. 
Foliott, 03. 

Fontaine, 41, 43, 130, 131, 137. 
Forbes, 36. 
Ford, 43, 142. 



Forts 1 Chiswcll 253, Christann* 
130, 198, Duquesne; 34, 3«/, Ma- 
gruder 60, 85, 218, 240. 

Fortli, 218. 

Poster, 244. 

Fouace, 122, 123, 134. 

h'otcey. The, H5, 0,, 68, 71. 

Pox, 138, 138, 142. 

Foy, « 



Frt 



I, 20. 



Franklin, 34, 61, 236; Diploma, 

151. 
Fraaer, George, 155. 
Fredericksburg, 65, 66. 
French and Indian War, 34, 36, 38. 
Fry, 41, 131, 1j4, 138, 142. 

Gage, Tl. 

Gallows Eoad, 26. 

Gait, 57, 62, 66, 86, 104, 244, 252, 

253. 
Gait House, 253. 
Gaming, 42. 
Gardiner, 96. 
Varlanid, The, 98. 
Garrett, 160, 193, 25j. 
Garrett House, 250. 
Garrison, 188. 
Gatewood, 189. 
Geddy, 67. 
George I., 214, 216. 
George III., 42, 4ti, 70, 108. 
Gibson, liO. 
Giles, 130. 

Gilmer, 103, 226, 232. 
Girardin, 178. 
Gloucester County, 12, 61, ;2, 114. 

154. 166, 198, 246, 261. 
Gloucester Town, 141. 
Gooch, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34, 107, 133, 

142, 208, 209, 216, 234, 
Goocliland County, 232. 
Goodall, 67. 

Goodwin. 106, 108, 109. 
Goobin, 111. 
Goosley, 74. 
Governor's Offices, 216; View of, 

215. 
Governor's House (see Palace). 
Graeme, 41, 142, 143 
Graifenreidt, 24, 225, 241. 
Graham, 43, 143, 144, 148, 150, i^^, 

154, 157; Richard, Autograph of. 



157. 



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Gv 



ivammur School— 
142, 143, ISO, 15S, 
182. 



.m, 170, 178, 



I. 0(1. 102. 

Gray, 122. 

Great Hridgp, 72. 

Ovpene, Ciuncral, S6. 

arrenupvinj!, 14, IB, S3, 12fi. 2.'i2, 
2S7, 

Greenhow, 244. 

Grenvillp. 42. 

Grimn, lOS, 130. 244. 252. 

Qricnn lloiixe, 202. 

GriRBbj-, HuRh BIbIv, in2; Por- 
trait of, 170. 

Grymex, 21G. 

Gwatkin, 63, .14, 7(1, l.'Sfl. ItlO. 1(12. 
104: Kocmpt, C3. 

Gwynn'H iHland, 72. 



Httdlcy, 123, 

Half-Way House, 2110, 2H1. 

Hall. 10.^ 

Hallam. 57, 220,230, 231. 

Hamilton, 81, 221. 

Hamlin, 12. 

Hammond, 201. 

Hampton, 32, 72, 08, 14fl, 2l;i. 

HH.mpton Hoads, 46. 

Hampton River, 46. 

llanrui^k, 71. 

ITa'nd, Gpneral, 83. 

llanovpr County, 38, 02, (17. I.'i4 

l[aniiford, 16U, 16S. 

Hardy, 246. 



llai 



, 182. 



lUrop I'arisli, 03, 94, 00. 

Harop, Appendim. 

IlariiBon, 21, 24, 77, 80, 00, 122, 

128,130,142, ll)8,2.'i4. Appendix. 
Harlwell, 122. 

Harvard College, Il2, 110, 100. 
Harvey. 8, 10, 201, 
Hill wood, 74. 
Hay, 07, 232, 234, 240. 
HaywaVd, B2, 198. 
Heath, 100. 
Henderson, 244, 200. 
Tlenclcrson Homie, 200. 
Honing, 205. 
Henley, 12, 04, 58, 70, 158, 100- 

102, 104; HamuDi, Autograph if, 

101 



!X. 277 

Henry, Patrick, 3»l, 38, 40, 60, 69, 

00, 02, 04. (17, 74, 77, 78, 7B, 80, 

81, 154, 212; Portrait, 7B. 
HesKe. 21. 
Hewitt, 54. 

HiiCRinxon, 11, 12, 13, Appendix. 
Hill. 130, Appendix. 
Hillsborough, Karl of, 48. 
Hint-on, John, 118. 
History at William and Mary, 

178, 1S2, 18(1. 
Hoar. 103. 
Hobday. 01, Rold medal presented 

lo, 03. 
Hmlgpn, 108, 123.' 
Hoffman, 80, 

Holloway. 24, 20, 28, 09, 100. 
Molt House, Appendiw. 
Honor System. I7(i, Appendim. 
Hopkins, 24, 28, 188. 
Hornaby, 0,'), 244. 
Horrocks, 64, 108, 164, 168, 160, 

101, 102; .lamcM, Autograph of, 

IQl. 
HoL'seF>. 20. 68. 
Horse Path, 13. 20. 
Horton, 127. 
Hospital tor Tn«am., 60, 242-246; 

Piiture of. 243. 
ITouxes, 24. 37, 68, 88, 02. 
Houston, 252. 
Howard, Iiord, 44. 
Howie, 2(16. 
Hiibard. 02. 

Hume, lUHiiry of Kngland. 80, 182. 
Hunter, 42, 81, 147, 23(1, 237. 

Indians, 7, 8, II. 10, 17, 02, 71, 
110, 120. 130, 132, 137, 200. 

Indian Fields, 03. 00, 200. 

Indian School at tlie <\)lleKt^, 110, 
132. 137. 142. 1(W, 174. 

InKlis, 123, 128. 120, 130, 232. 

Inn Keepers, 24, 

innis, 24, 00. 70, 104, 244. 

Irvine, 41, 131. 130, 142. 

Isle of Wight County, 112. 137, 
130. 

Jackson, 00, 129, 180. 

.lames ]., 110; IT., 124. 

James City (Jounty, 14, 50, 72, 
74, 88, 62, 03, 127. 200, 221, 226, 
238, 230, 240, 256, 257. 

James City Court House, 57, 238, 
236. 



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278 In: 

James River, 7, 10, 1», 20, 24, 45, 

65, 82, 84, 259, 261. 
JaoieBoii, 58. 
Jameatown, 7, 8, 12, 13, 16, 18, 19, 

20, 74, 84, 98, 107, 114, 125, 12B, 

142, 1Q8, 208, 224, 239, 253, 257, 

258. 
Jamestown Island, 258; Picture^ 

258. 
JeRerson, Thomafi, 42, 56, 00, 01, 

71, 78, 81, 153, 157, 168, 170, 

172, 174, 175, 178, 184, 202, 210. 

232, 234, 236, Appendix; his 
1 student, 157; Por- 



, 159. 



103, 



Jewellers, 57. 

Jockey's Neek, 13. ' 

Jnlins, John, 183, 188; Autograph i 

<,/. 183; Portrait, 191. ! 

Johnson, 34, 74, 156. 158, 162. ' 

Johnston, 91, 190, 237. 252, 255. i 

Jon^s, 18, 19, 24, 26, 43, 94, 96, 97, ! 

98, 108, 130, 132, 133, 144, 151, I 

153, 158, 160, 164, 166, 180, 182, 

192, 206, 208, 214, 221, 225, 264, [ 

205, Appendia. . 

Kean, 228. j 

Kecoughtan, 7. 1 

Keith, 108, 182. 
Kenipe, 13, 257. 

Kendall, 97, 98. I 

Kennon, 138. 
Kent Inland, 8, 11. 
Kerseboom, 198. 
King, 112. 

King's Creek, 8, 14. 21, 259, 200, i 
262. 



Lecture System, 153, 174. 

Lectern, 108. 

Lee, 32, 54, 56, 00, 72. 75, 77, 78, 

257, 264; Richard Henry, Par. 

trait of, 75. 
Lrfevre, 129. 
Leigh, 160. 
Lely, 198. 
Lenox Library, 147. 
Leslie, 81. 
Lettson, 61. 

Leviogston, 224, 226, 240, 250. 
Lewis, 62, 77. 

Lexington, Battle of, 66, 222. 
Liberty Bell, 102, 103, 105, 107. 
Lightfoot, 21, 128, Appendix. 
Littlepage, 209. 
Little England, 45. 
Littletown, 262. 
Lively, 237. 

London Company. 49, 110, 111. 
Long, 287. 
Louisa County, 50. 
Lovers' Lane, 25. 
Ludlow, 261. 
Ludwell, 13, 18, 21. 33, 94. 90, 99, 

100, 123, 125, 128, 150, 209,252, 

257. 



Kiskyacke, 8. 

Knights of the Horseshoe, 25, 214. 

Knox, 226. 

La Fayette, 83, 88. 252. 
Lake, 12. 
Laneville, 87. 
Lawrence, 218. 

Lawyers, 24, 28, 29, 30, 57, 74. 
Law School at Litchfield, 178. 
I^w School at William and Mary, 
170, 172, 178, 186. 



Luke, 24. 
Lundy, 188. 
Lunsford, 261. 
Lyons, 38. 

Macon, 96. 

Madison, James, 61, 82, 86, 162, 
164, 168, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 
178, 180, 182, 183, 189, 198; A«- 
tograpk, 183, 244; Portrait of, 
185. 
Magdalene, The, 65, 222. 
Magruder, 94. 
Mam, The, 83. 
Manufactures, 37, 56. 
Markham, John, 15S. 
Marot, 24, 232. 

Marlborough, 22, 28. 125, 133. 
Marshall, 158, 166, 167, 202; John, 

Portrait of, 167, 177. 
Marston Parish, 93, 94. 
I Martian, 8, 280. 

I Martin's Hundred, 7, 8, 13, 93, 269, 
! 261. 

I Mary, Queen, 116, 118, 200, 214. 
Maryland, 49. 61. 78, 126. 
ifaryland Oaxette, 150. 



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Mason, 4a, li, 75, 77, 212; Por- 
trait of. 75. 
Masonic iVaternity, 74. 
Manonic Lodge, 245, 247 j Picture 

af, 247; Pictureof chair, 247. 
Maasic, 74. 
Mattey's Free School, 12, 22, 57, 

218,210,220,256. (The Matthew 

Wtoley Observation iind .'rftc- 

tice School.) 
.Mathews, 7, 90. 
Mftttapony, (17, 93, 209. 
Haupin, 24, 246. 
Maury, 3ti, 43, 154. 
Maynard, 25. 
Mayo, 136. 
Maz/ei, 172, 244. 
McUa.bG, 94. 
McCandliah Housp, 253. 
AlcCandlixh, 266, 2tJ0. 
McClellan, (icorge It., 01; ilcad- 

quurt«rB, Appendia. 
McClurg, 42, 112, M2, 8tl, 170, 172, 

178, 245. 
McKcnzic, 3X 21t)i 232, 
McLean, 182. 
Meade, 103, .1.32. 
Medals, 64, 01, 101, lfl2, lot}. 
Medical Scliool, 172, 178. 
MeherrJn Inu.dns, 130. 
Menilie, 13, 257, 202. 
Meole, 18. 

Mci'cer, 40. 42, SO, 72. 
Meredith, 109. 
Methodism, 14!. 
Middleton, 10. 
Middletown PlanUtiuii, 7-10, 03, 

04,00, 08, 122, 126. 
Middletown Parish, 93, 94. 
Millingion, 01, 160. 
Mills, 250. 
Milner, 122. 
MiniHlers of Bruton Oliurch, IDS, 

100. 
Modern Languages, when first 

taught, 170, 172, 
Monroe, 202, 234, 245; James, Por- 

trait of, 105. 
Montague, U5, 68. 
Montreal, 49. 
Moody, 34, 256. 
Moon, 112. 
Moore, K4. 

Morecock House, Appendiir. 
Morgan, 01. 
Morris, 99. 



Mory«on (Morrison), 16, j«i, 189. 

Mullikin, 123. 

Munford, 207. 

.Vlutlow, 10, 

Murray, 55, 5D, 00, 228, 232. 

Muse, 231. 

Nairne, 189. ; 

Narrangansett Bay, 56. 

Nanseniond County, 127. 

Nfgroes, School for, 57. 

Neill, 111, 216. 

NclHon, 33, 54, 60, 60, 74, 7S, 77, 
83, 108, 178, 1B2, 108, 212, 240, 
242, 244, 248, 254 ; William, Por- 
trait of, 75. 

Nelxon House, 201. 

Newborn, 225. 

New Castle, 07, 200. 

New Jersey, 40. 

New Kent County, 07, 72, 74, HI, 
00, 93, 224, 254. 

Newport Ncvr, 111, 200. 

New York, 01, 72, 83 85, 126, 228. 

Nicholas, 62, 00, 04, 65, 08, 72, 76, 
102, 217, 246. 

Nieholaon, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 114, 
122, 124, 125, 120, 127, 128, IflO, 
205, 230; Autograph o/, 23. 

Non- importation aahocir.tions. 48, 
02. 

Norfolk, 228. 

Norfolk County, 127. 

North, Lord, 60, 04, 68, 70, 71. 

North Carolina, 14, 120, 236. 

Norlhinpton, 12, Appendix. 

Northumberland, 100. 

Norvcll, 08. 

Noted Hesidcnccs, 248-250, Appen- 

Nott,'21, 22, 2 , 24, 108, 213; 

Toml>atone, 23. 
Nottingham, Lord, 110. 
Nottoways, King of the, 10, 130. 
Nottoway River, 130. 
Objects of int«rest at the College, 

198-200. 
Ogle, 32, 228, 230. 
"Olive Branch," The, 68, 71. 
Ordinary Keepers, 24, 57, 232, 234, 

240. 
Organ in the church, 100. 
Orphan children educated, 112. 
Otis, 38. 



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Pack, 24. 

rage, 13, !», 21, 42, 57, 58, 61, 65, 
66, 72, ea, SB, 102, 108, lOfl, 122, 
128, 153, 103, 198, 218, 250, Ap- 
pendix; John, Portrait of, 163. 

Palace, iTie, 22, 32, 37, 80, 213, 

Palace (irwn, 33, 220, 231. 240, 

248. 250, 255. 
Palisadea, 11, 12. 
Palmer, 111. 
Pamunkey King, S. 
Painunkey Neck, 116, i-4. 
Pamunkey, Queen of, 16, 130 ; 

frontlet, 16, 17. 
Pamunkey River, 7, 8, 32, 201>. 
Pape, 119, 200. 
Paper Mill, 30, 57. 
Paradise HouKe, 251, 252; Picture 

of, 251. 
Parke, 18, 94, 09, 108. 123, 124, 

125; Daniel. Jr.. Portrait of, 29. 
Parks, 28, 30, 57. 134, 143. 236. 
Parmalee, 166, 169. 
"Parsons Cause," 38, 153, 154, 

162. 
Partridge, 58. 
Pasteur, 57, 66. 
Paulinits. 110. 
Peachy. 88, 250. 
Peachy Hou^e, 8.., 88, 249. 250; 

Picture of, 249. 
Pearson, 57. 
Peasley, 114. 
Pelham, 100, 230. 
Pendleton, Edmund, G6, 72, 75, 76, 

77, 213; Portrait of, 75. 
Pennsylvania, 126, 176. 
Perry, 116, 140. 
Peyton Randolph House 250, 254; 

Picture of, 249. 
Phi Beta Kappa Society, 166, 169. 

200,233,^^4; Page from records, 

169; Picture of keys, 233. 
Philadelphia, 59, 61. 62, 64, 74, 

228. 242. 
Philadelphia, College of, 147. 
Phillips, 82, 
Philosophy School. 114, 118, lL9, 

133, 136, 142, 143, 150, 158, 160, 

162. 166, 182. 
Physicians, 24, 25, 57, 244. 
Pianketank, 30. 
PicKs, 16. 
Pinkney. 230, 237. 
Pirates, 25. 27, li8. 11!). 



Pitt, 36, 42, 

Play House (see iheatre), 

Pocahontas, 110. 

Point Comfort, 7. 

Point Pleasant, 62. 

Pollard, 265, 266. 

Political Economy, firs*, taught at 

William and Mary, 170, 171, 172. 
Popeley, 11, 12. 
Poplar Island, 11. 
Poplar Neck, 93, 258. 
Population, 37, 58, 86, 92. 
Poropotanke, 93, 
Porteus, 1/4. 
Porto Bello, 78. 259, 
Portraits. 54, 138, 198. 245. 
Pott. 10, Appendix. 
Powder Magazine, 64, 70, 98, 140, 

222. 223; Pictare of, 223. 
Powell, 57, 64, lOO, 102, 242. 
Power, 100, 

Powhatan Plantation, zal. 
Powhatan Swamp, 13, 257. 
Prentis, 76. 102. 103, 244. 
Presidents and Professors, 194-138. 
President's House, 82, 113, 138, 

168, 191; Picture, 113. 
Preston, 43, 143, 144, 146, 147, 151. 

228. 
Princess Anne Port, 20. 
Princeton College, 49, 180. 
Printing office. 28, 236, 237. 
Proclamations, 68, 81, 85, 126. 
Providenoe, 61. 
Purdie, 64. 66, 236, 237, 

Queen's College, 25. 136. 

Queen's Creek, 10, 12, 20, 22, 55, 

58, 57, 93, 94, 96, 256, 259. 
Queen Mary's Port, 20, 25, 57, 219, 

256. 
Queen Mary's Road, 57, 218. 

Races. 26, 58. 

Raleigh, 232, 235, 

Raleigh Tavern, 33, 40, 45, 48, 57, 
58, 60, 70, 81, 86, 166, 228, 230, 
232-235, 240; Picture o), 233. 

Ramsay. 182, 186. 

Randolph, John, 24, 26, 28, 57, 74, 
140, 213, Appendix; Portrait of, 
29; John of Roanoke, 250; Pey- 
ton, 28, 48, 57, 62, 66. 66, 68, 70, 
72, 73, 74, 76, lOO, 122, 134. 189, 
198, 202, 230, 242, 245, 249, 254, 
255, 256; Appendix; Portrait of. 



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Kandolph, John, — 

73; Kdmund, 74, 76, 100. 173, 

202. 220, 253 i J'ortmit of, 173; 

William, 122, 133, 232, a53. 
R«iide, 260. 
Rigb^r, 229. 
Richmond, 13, 72, 81, 82, 80, 88, 

02, 174, 221, 231, 230, 237. 
Rich Neck, 13, 267. 
Riddell, 67. 
Rind, 42, 230. 
Kingfteld, 250. 
RioU, 180. 
Hipon Hall, 22, 268. 
Ritlenhouiie, 01. 

Roane, Sponi-er; Portrait of, 17. 
Roberts, 100. 
Robertson, 24, 20. 
Kobinson, 28, 32, 37, 43, 68, 100, 

122, 142, 144, 146, 147, 161, 1j3, 

200. 
Rochambean, 83, 86, 262. 
Rockingham, 42. 
Rogers, 88, 176, 182, 2j0. 
Raos«vclt, 108. 
Roaewell, 67, 61. 
Routledge, 2G3. 
Howe, 43, 160, 153, 
Rowaay, Appendix. 
Royle, 230, 
KulHn, 88. 
Euffin'ti Ferry, 70. 
Rush, Dr., 61. 

Sabine Hall, 258, 25!). 

Salaries, 120, 133, 136, 137, 144. 

147, 158. 
Salisbury. Ear] of, 7. 
Sandys, 110, 
Sanders, 80. 
SaunderR, 86, 183, 180, 188, 215, 

217, 244,250; IlobeTt. Autograph 

of, 183; Portrait of. 191. 
Saunders House, 33, 210, 217, 260; 

Virtu of, 215. 
Sawbridge, 69, 
ScarbrouRh, 122. 
Scarburgh, 180. 
Scholarships, 130, Appendix, 
Schools. 21, 40, 57, 111, 112, 119. 

120, 127, 154, 108. 
Science, 42, 57, 153. 
Sclater, 74. 
Scott. WinfieUI. 180, 202; Portrait 

of, 187. 
Seagood, 214. 



;x. 281 

Seal ol Virginia, 78. 

Seawell, 184. 

Seeretarie's Land, 13. 

Semple. 182, 184, 180, 244, 254, 

Appendi(X. 
Sequeyra, 57, 244. 
Serjanton, 24. 
Seymour, 110, 120. 
Sharpe, 24. 
Shawnee, 62. 
Shields, 232, 264. 
Shenandoah Valley, 26. 
Sheppey, 89. 
Shipping Receipt; Photograph of, 

47. 
Short, 160, 245. 
Simpkins, 93, 00. 
Singleton, 220. 
Six Chimney Lot, 248. 
Skelton, 210. 
Skiffes Creek, 250. 
Skimeno Creek, 93. 
Slavery. 50. 55.62, 06, 71, 130, 186, 

Small'. Dr. William. 42. 43, 147, 
153. 174, ISO, Appendix. 

Sinead. 188, ,189, 

SmibcTt. 61. 

Smith. 01. 66, 122, 106, 168, 170, 
182. 183, 184, 186, 186, 242, 265, 
250. 261, 202; .T. Augustine. /iK- 
tngraph of, 183 ; Portrait of. 186. 

Snio'llet, 80. ■ 

Smythe, 58, 

Society for the Advancement of 
TVfiil Knowledge. 57, 61. 

Society for the Prnmotion of Man- 
ufaetures, 37, 

Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, HO. 

Sons of Liliertv. 00, 

Smithall. 57. 62. 74. 234, 204, 

Southampton, Karl of. 7, 

South Carolina. 78. 81. 

Spotswood. 22, 25, 26, 30, 98, 09. 
129, 1.10. 133. 142. 163, 108. 213, 
214, 222, 225, 234, 261, 

Spotswood Cannon, 198. 

Sprague, 178. 

S prowl e, 50. 



Spur 



, 102, 



Stagg. 224, 225. 
Stamp .^ct. 38, 40, 42, 
Stanton, 1.8, 32, 107, 
State Prison, 221, 222. 
Statutes of the College, 134. 143, 
147. 182, Appendite. 



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St. John's College, 21. 

Ht. raul's Cathedral, 123. 

St. Simon, 83. 

Stillingfleet, 116. 

Stith, 34, 66, lOB, 133, 13S, 142, 

143, 144, 236; Book plate, 145. 
Storekeepera, 57. 
Stretch, 67. 
Stuart, 55, 252; Lady Christine, 

108. 
Stubbs, 193. 
Students, nunibers of, 144, 160, 168, 

172, 180, 184, 18ti, 188, 194, 267, 

Appendix; Names of, 148, 14B. 
Sutnmarj of Leading Facts regaru- 

ing the College, 20O-2O4. 
Sun dial, 198, 
Surrender of Lord Cornwalliii, 83. 

92. 
Surry County, 65, 130. 
Surveyor's Bond, 155. 
Susquehanna River, 112. 
Syms, 112. 

Tabb, 72. 

Taliaferro, 192, 24B, 257; William 

B., Portrait of. 187. 
Talbot County, Maryland, 49. 
Tannery, The, 57, 257. 
Tappahannock, 228. 
Tarpley, 57, 102, 103, 107. 
Tayloe, 90, 259. 
Taylor, 90. 
Tazewell, 57, 64, 180, 226, 240, 242, 

244, 245, 253, 258. 
Taiewell Hall, 253. 
Tea Taxes, 42, 50, 59. 
Teach (see Black Beard), 25. 
■lemple Farm, 28, 201. 
Text Books at College, 170. 
Thacher, 84. 
The Theatre; 24, 33, 36, 224, 232; 

240, 250. 

Advertisement of "Merchant of 

Venice," 227. 
Tliomson, 22. 
Thorpe, 13, 14. 18, 19, 110, 111, 

253, 257. 
Ticknor, 172. 
Tillotson, 116, 119. 
Timson, 07, 88, 256. 
Tobacco, 80. 
Todd, 178. 
Totten, 183. 
Townshend, 42. 
Townsend's Irfind, 19. 



Transfer of the College, 134, 192. 

Traquair, 108, 252. 

Travis, 74, 153, 244. 

Trebell, 232. 

Tucker, 58, 82, 83, 85, 86, 172, 176, 
178, 180. 186, 188, 189, 220, 245, 
250, Appendix; hi,. George, i'or- 
trait of, 177; Nathaniel B., 
Portrait of, 201; Henry St. 
George, Portrait of, 201. 

Tucker House, 226, 250, 251; Pic- 
ture of, 251. 

Tullitt, 206. 

Turkey Island, 133, 253. 

Tuttey's Neck, appendix. 

" Two Penny Act," 38, 146, 147, 
150, 154, 162. 

Tyler, 12, 21, 24, 58, 59, 63, HI, 

74, 88, 90, 97, 98, 177, 179, loO, 

184, 180, 192, 193, 198, 200, 202, 

I 213, 216, 232, 239, 253, 254, 255, 

250, Appendix; John, the mar- 

i shall, Autograph, 63; John, Sr., 

I Portraits of, 177, 203; John, 

chancellor. Portrait of, 179. 

Ultra Montane Expedition, 25, 214. 

■ University of Virginia, 175, 176, 

184. 

UnderhlU, 259. 

Utie, 259. 
I Varina Parish, 114. 
I Vernon, 126. 

Vest, 90. 
j Vest House, Appendix. 

Vicinity of Williamsburg, 257, 263. 
j Vincennes, 81, 221. 

Vineyard Land, 49, 50. 

Virginia Conventions, 61, 62, 64, 
72, 76. 

Virginia Qaxette, 28, 30, 42, 44, 45, 

49, 60, 84, 66, 77, 81, 158, 213, 

216, 225, 227, 228, 236, 237, 240, 

I 246, 256, 262. 

j Virginia Historical Society, 13, 16. 

Virginia Navy, 80. 
, Virginia Seal, 80. 
' Wake, 140. 

; Walker, 42, 60, 74, 153, 242. 
; Wall, 100. 

■ Waller, 34, 57, 6z, 90, 100, 102, 
; 228, 229, 242, 244, 255, 256, 260. 

Waller Hous« 255, 
i Waller's Grove, 77, 256. 
j Walthoe, 33, 46. 
I Warburton, 249, 252. 

■ Ware Parish, 154. 



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Warwick County, 72, 74, 126. 

Warrington, 140. 

Washinglon, 18, 10, 30, 34, 37, 48. 
CO, fltl, 72, BO, 81, 83, 84, 143, 
178, IBB, 180, 202, 231, 245, 248, 
250, 254; Ueorge, PortToits of, 
170, IBl. 

Watt, 153. 

Webb, ISO. 

Webstar, 234. 

Weldon, 13. 

Weld's Travels, 86. 

Weat, 16, 03, 108, 258, 260, 

Weatover, 82. 

Wwt I'oint, 258, 260. 

Wctlierburn, 232. 

Wethersford, U. 

Whftley, 21, 22, 127, 21H-220, 250; 
Tombstone, 210, 

Wharton, 100, 103. 

Wlieat, eultivution of, 84. 

Wlieatley, 180. 

White, 123. 

Wliitefleld, 141. 

Whiting, 141. 

William, King, 20, 118, 126, 200. 
214. 

William and Mary Coi:jge: £,arly 
movements towa'-da educntion, 
110; the College at Henrico, 111; 
p:a»t India School, 111; hyros' 
School, 112; Subscriptions to a 
eollege in 1000, 112; Dr. Jamea 
Blair revives the project ot a 
college, 114; visits England and 
proBentB the petition of the Gen- 
eral Assembly i.( Virginia, 11° 
<Jueen Mary, in oouncti, oroers 
charter to be granted, 118; < 
dowment granted, 118; the pi- 
rate fund, 110; the Boyle fund 
for tlie education of [ndial>s, 
110; terms of the charter, 120, 
122; eoat of arms. 120; bound- 
ary stone, 121; Arst chancellor 
122; first trunteeii. 122; right t( 
Hend a burgess, 122, Appendix, 
location, 122; bricks, plana, 
walls, 123 ; grammar school, 123 ; 
Hubsoriptions, 124; roya'. prod..- 
niation, 12(1 ; quarrel between 
Nicholson and Blair, 127, 128; 
main builaing destroyed by fire, 
128; ijstored, 120; philosophy 
school established, 120, 133; 
Bcholarshipi at. 130, ippendiai; 



lEX. 283 

William and Mary College— 
Brafferlon School, 120 - 133; 
house for Indians built, 132; Li- • 
bcary, 30, 84, 133, 141, 180, 100, 
184; salaries, 120, 133, 136, 137, 
144, U7, 15B; transfer, 134; 
statutes, 134, 143. 147, 182; 
courses ot study, 114, 134-138, 
153, 178, 200, 204, Appendix; 
divinity school established, 137; 
chapd erected, 138; President's 
house founded in 1732,138; .lohn 
Randolph goes on a mission to 
England in behalf ot, 140; gifts 
by the General Assembly U2, 
120, 134, 140, 141 150; visit ot 
George Whitpfleld, 141; death of 
l)r Blair, 142; conventions ot 
the clergy at, 114, 144, 147, 100; 
studcnU in 1754, 144; dlssen- 
flions over the two-penny act, 
146-148; diploma to Benjamin 
Franklin. 151; Dr. William 
Small introduces the lecture 
system, 153 : physical apparatus, 
l.'i3, 182; finances of the college, 
150, 17-1, 182, 102. 104. 204} 
Botetourt medal, 158; list ot 
professors and other ofllcers, 158 ; 
dissensions over American Epis- 
copacy, 100; College seal, 120, 
104; prominent alumni, 163,169, 
163, 16B, 167. 177, 180, 187. 200- 
203; rporgani/ation in 1770,166; 
President's house Cornwallis 
headquarters. 168; collie mili- 
tary company, 108 ; Jefferson s 
hill for amending charter, 1J8- 
170; faculty in 1770, 170; 
schools of law, imediclna and 
modern languagCB established, 
170; grammar school and ci''ini- 
ty Hchool abolished, 170; t«ct- 
hooks at, 170, 178; injured by 
the American Revolution, 174; 
lecture syslem, 174, 176; elective 
system, 175; honor syswm, 176; 
chair of iiirtory established, 178, 
1S2; chancellors since the Revo, 
lution, 170; system of study in 
1804, 180; attempted removal of 
college to Richmond in 1824, 
184; Professor Dew's adminis- 
tration, 180; question of slavery, 
how treated. 186 ■ 188 ; main 
building burnt in 1850, 189; n- 



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284 Ini 

WilliaiB and Mary Oolite— 
, stored, 189, 190; general cata- 
logue, 189; closed during the 
war between the States, 190; 
main building burned in 1S62. 
190, 199; instruction renewed 
after the war. 192; auapension 
for seven years (1881 -lena}. 
192; normal course established 
in 1888, 192; faculty reorgan- 
i7*d, 193; college transferred to 
the State, 193; present conuit.o.i, 
194; list of presidents and pro- 
fessors, 194-198; object* of in- 
terest at college. 198-200; sum- 
mary of leading fact». 200-204. 

William and Mary Colkf^ main 
building: Burned. 22. 88, 91, 128, 
189. 190 ISO; Views, 113, 135, 
199. 

Williamsburg: Chart of, Frontis- 
piece; settled an Middle Planta- 
tion, 7-19; map of vicinity, 9; 
Bacon's convention at, 14; Drum- 
mond execute<l at. 14: peace with 
Indians in 1677 celebrated at, | 
id; meetinjfof the first assembly 
after Bacon's rebellion, 18; brick i 
church at, 18; college at, 19, | 
110-204; Colonial WilliamRburg. : 
19-38: capital removed to, and ■ 
the place called Williamsburg, 
20; first survey, 20; first plat of 
Williamsburg opposite to page 
20; palace or governor's house, ' 
22; brick capitol at, 21, 205-213; 
Mattey's Fw* School, 22; second ! 
brick church, 24 ; powder maga- ' 
zine, 24; theatre, 24; appearance 
of in 17^:3, 24; pirates hung at, 
2.'>; made a city incorporate, 
26; Virginia Oazetle establish- 
at, 28; pctper mill at, 30; 
additions to, 34; Washington 
in, 17; appearance of in 1759, 
37 ; population, 37 ; "' Cradle 
of the Revolution," 38-87; ex- 
citement caused by the "Two 
Penny Act," 38 ; Henry s speech 
on the stamp act, 40; ex- I 
eit*ment over the tc* tax, 42; 
Botetourt arrives in, 45; dis- | 
solves the assembly, 48; Wither- 1 
spoon's visit to, 49; vineyard 
near, 49; Cape Company meets ' 



VVilliftmsburg — 
at, 50; funeral of Botetourt, 52; 
American episcopacy in, 54; ar- 
rival of Lord Dunmore, 55 ; fac- 
tory established on Qu-^n's 
Creek. 50; schools at, 57 ; society 
for the promotion of useful 
knowle^e formed at, 57 ; fl'e 
engines procured, 58; population 
in 1773, 53; races at, 58; ap- 
pearance of in 1759, 58; balls, 
eitc. at, 60; powder abstracted 
from the magazine, 04; Henry 
marches on Will lame burg, 67; 
city volunteers, 70 ; Dunmore 
flees from tne palaoe, 71; com- 
mitteo of safety appointed 72; 
battalion ot troopa formed, 72, 
74 ; conventions of the colony 
held in, 62, 64, 72, 76, 77, 78; 
Slate Constitution adopted, 77 ; 
Patrick Henry governor, 80; 
Thomas Jefferson governor, 81 ; 
Cornwallis' army at, 82; Ameri- 
can arniy, 83; appeorauee of in 
1781, 84; peace with Gicat Brit- 
ain celebrated at, 85, 86; col- 
lege village, 86-92; population 
in 1779 and 1795, 86; appear- 
ance in 1804, 88; visited by La- 
fayette, 88; homo of President 
Tyler, 88; appearance in 1SS9, 
90; its contribution to the war, 
91; present population, 92; Bru- 
ton Church, 93-110; College of 
William and Mary, 110-205; tlie 
Capitol, 205-213; the governor's 
house or palace, 213-221; the 
SUte prison, 221-224; the thea- 
tre, 224-232 ; the Raleigh Tavern, 
232-235 ; the printing offioe, 236- 
238; Williamsburg jail, 238; 
James City county court-house, 
239; county and city oourt-house, 
240-241; hospital for tho ineane, 
242-245; Ma^nic lodge, 245-248; 
noted residences in, 248-256; 
Queen Mary's Port, 256; resi- 
dences near, 257-262; Williams- 
burg Cavalier, 237, AppendiiB. 

Willie, 162. 

Wilmer, William H., 104, 108, 109, 
183, 184; Autograph, 183. 

Windsor, 30, 57. 

Wirt, William, 252. 



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'^^ 



Wise, 90, 263. 

Witherapoon, 49. 

Wood, James, commiflston as col- 
lector, 31. 

Woodhani, 22S, 

Woodward, A'fidestosHco I Heraldry, 
120. 

Wormcloy. 00, 122, 124, 261. 

Wormeley'a Greek, 8, 201. 

Worrell, lOS 

Wray, 47, 

Wren, 123, 133. 

Wright, 120. 

Wyatt, 7, 12. 

Wynne, 245. 

Wythe, Georgo, 42, 4fl, 57, 01, 64, 
78, 84, 102, 170, 174, 178, 18H, 
lt)8, 210. 234, 235, 242, 248, 2.'>1, 
253, Appendix:; Portrait of, 177. 

Wythe House, 84, 170, 248; i'lc. 
ttire of, 251. 



Yale College, 100. 

Yat««, 41, 108, 137, 143, 153, 164, 

167; WiWiam. Autograph of,lal. 
Yonge, Captain Thomas, 10. 
York, 8. 
York county. 11. 18, 20. 73. 74, 9a. 

94, 127, 106. 218, 22fi, 226, a32. 

240, 251, 200. 
York Hampton Psrinh. 156. 102, 

204. 
York Pariah, 12. 201. 
York River. 7, 8, 14, 19, 45, 71, 84. 

94, 122, 258. 259. 200, 201. 
YorkBhiTo 11, 137, 200. 
Yorktown, 12. 19, 21. 32, 33. 34. 60, 

55, 58, 01, 05. 07, 74 83, 85, 88, 

02, 122, 141, 108, 190, 217. 2,i4. 

220, 228. 20O, 201 ; ficturea of 

u-indmilt and seal, 203, 



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